Since the dawn of entomology (more or less), scientists have been pondering the question posed so eloquently in "High Hopes," a song Jimmy Van Heusen and Sammy Cahn wrote for the 1959 movie A Hole in the Head, starring Frank Sinatra:
Just what makes that little old ant think he'll move that rubber tree plant?
Stephen Pratt, an associate professor at Arizona State University's School of Life Sciences, knows the answer as well as anyone. He runs Pratt Lab, where researchers study how insect societies source food, build nests, and generally get along. The very short answer, he said, is that ants use collective, decentralized intelligence to perform complex tasks. It helps that they also lack an instinct for self-preservation and are focused only on actions that advance the group's missions.
These characteristics have piqued the interest of robotics engineers such as Vijay Kumar, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania's Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics. He and the researchers in his General Robotics, Automation, Sensing, and Perception Lab (GRASP) are developing "swarms" of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that work in concert. These devices take hundreds of measurements each second, calculating their position in relation to each other, working cooperatively toward particular missions, and just as important, avoiding each other despite moving quickly and in tight formations. Kumar and his colleagues are using intel from Pratt's lab, particularly around how ants communicate and cooperate without any central commander, to make swarming UAVs even more autonomous.
Unsurprisingly, the military, mining companies, agriculture, and all sorts of other industries can't wait to deploy swarms of drones for various applications—but neither can some conservationists and scientists, who see the utility that swarms would bring to mapping, monitoring, and sensing the natural environment.