“British puzzles have more black squares, and the effect is not merely aesthetic—it means that the constructors can limit themselves to words found in a dictionary,” Connor explained. “The words in American puzzles interlock far more often, which means that they end up including proper nouns: unlikely places, extraordinary people, and everything from inventions to fragments of phrases.”
This construct has affected crosswords in two distinct, opposing ways: While significantly increasing the potential answers to a clue, the seemingly endless array of possibilities makes puzzles more complex—a quality that reflects the period of American excess in which crosswords came of age.
In the flapper era, crosswords inspired chic black-and-white clothes, Broadway revues, even church sermons. Their prevalence made crosswords the rock 'n roll of the 1920s—they were ubiquitous, either revered or reviled depending on whom you asked, with a 1924 London Times article gravely declaring the state of "An Enslaved America:"
"[The crossword] has grown from the pastime of a few ingenious idlers into a national institution: a menace because it is making devastating inroads on the working hours of every rank of society... [people were seen] cudgeling their brains for a four-letter word meaning 'molten rock' or a six-letter word meaning 'idler,' or what not: in trains and trams, or omnibuses, in subways, in private offices and counting-rooms, in factories and homes, and even—although as yet rarely—with hymnals for camouflage, in church."
America was obsessed. And this obsession drove the newspaper industry to adopt the crossword as a mainstay in its pages, making it the brainiac's game of choice—one that required mental gymnastics, luck, and determination.
American crossword builders have been instrumental in keeping the puzzle alive—and relevant—today. Will Shortz, the legendary editor of The New York Times’ crossword column, has singlehandedly made crosswords sexy with pop culture references and slang that appeal to a modern audience. Shortz has famously included hip-hop references in his clues, and he's keen on selecting creative interns who help keep his column fresh. But having a wildly popular, imaginative genius behind the world’s premier crossword isn’t changing the fact, Connor says, that fewer people than ever before are crosswording. And just because crosswords are slowly losing their crotchety clues doesn’t mean that solver demographics have changed, according to Sharp.
“I don’t think you’ve had much of a change in terms of the audience the puzzle is pitched to,” Sharp said. “Cluing is more democratic, but reliance on ‘crosswordese’ and the reality of a generally older, generally white audience means that the puzzle just gravitates that way.”
Sharp, for his part, is suspicious of making crosswords more accessible, saying that just putting a puzzle on a mobile device “does nothing to the overall ‘accessibility’ of the puzzle.” A print loyalist, he notes that demographics of newspaper readership dictate the content of the crossword puzzle and therefore, what segment of the population is interested in it. In fact, he predicts the average puzzle solver is a college-educated white woman in her sixties.