In this extended remix of the print Q&A, we talk about the long-term potential of biology, that cheese project, and the potential to engineer the microbial ecosystems of our digestive tracts.
People have big expectations for biology in the 21st century. Many say that biotech will be as big as information technology was in recent decades. Is that true?
People want synthetic biology and biotechnology to be the next industrial revolution. Looking back, people have tended over time to imagine bodies functioning in ways that were analogous to the dominant technological paradigm of their day, whether that was steam engines or computers. I hope that soon biology will be the technology we judge things by. Maybe we're going to see industry and computational stuff start to look more like biology, rather than biology looking more like industry and computation.
What would it mean to have industry look like biology?
Well, people are trying to push synthetic biology [in the direction of] the chemical industry--to replace any petrochemical with a biological process. You could have a vat of bacteria that's going to make the chemicals that you want. That model can be good, but it's limited. It isn't trying to rethink the way we use chemicals and do industry. Daisy Ginsberg, an artist and a writer and designer, says, "It's a disruptive technology that doesn't really disrupt anything." If we still have gasoline, just made of bacteria in a vat, that may not be the right vision for the future.
People talk about creating standard DNA "parts," called BioBricks. What are those?
The idea behind BioBrick parts is that you can have a collection of pieces of DNA that have specific useful functions---off-the-shelf DNA parts. You are able to say, "Okay, I need a part that is fluorescent," or "I need a part that will activate in response to this chemical." Then you can mix and match: you put them both in a bacterium, and then you have fluorescence in response to some chemical--so we can have this kind of RadioShack.
It seems like the human body is getting more attention as an ecosystem of microbes and human cells working together. You explored this in a fascinating way by making cheese with human skin bacteria, right?
I was getting really into microbial ecology when I started a design fellowship with an arts and science group, Synthetic Aesthetics. I was moving away from the BioBrick model and into mixing and matching of whole cells. I was paired with Sissel Tolaas, who is an odor researcher. She calls herself a professional provocateur-- she lives between a lot of different fields, from perfumery and odor science to in-your-face art projects. She'll do things like paint people's body odors on walls in galleries.
It's not connected to the armpit, it's not as gross, but it is kind of gross. So why is it gross? She says things like, "Nothing stinks, only thinking makes it so." I was really interested in saying, "OK, where does body odor come from?" It's from this relationship between the bacteria that live on our skin and our own metabolism. We Googled "body odor," and we kept finding the molecule responsible for body odor was Isovaleric Acid--that's a really sweaty smell. Then we looked at some of the microbes responsible [for producing Isovaleric Acid] and we found propioni bacteria. When you just Google "Isovaleric Acid Propionibacterium," the whole first page of Google is about Swiss cheese.