Crucially, the rules classify the Internet as a "telecommunications service" under Title II of the Communications Act. Net-neutrality advocates and Obama argued that the move was the only way the FCC could enact regulations that could hold up in court. The rules apply to Internet connections both at home and on smartphones.
The cable and telecom companies fear that the FCC has essentially turned them into public utilities, potentially opening the door to an avalanche of new regulations that have little to do with protecting an open Internet. The new burdensome regime will discourage investment and mean slower speeds and higher prices for everyone, they claim.
Wheeler initially favored rules that would not have invoked Title II, but he backtracked in the face of a massive public backlash and Obama's intervention. More than 4 million people filed outraged comments with the FCC, the most for any proceeding ever.
The two Republicans on the five-member FCC, Ajit Pai and Michael O'Rielly, issued lengthy and passionate dissents, warning that the agency was delivering a severe blow to online freedom.
"The Internet has become a powerful force for freedom, both at home and abroad," Pai said. "So it is sad this morning to witness the FCC's unprecedented attempt to replace that freedom with government control."
O'Rielly claimed that the Democratic commissioners were attempting to "usurp the authority of Congress by rewriting the Communications Act to suit [their] own values and political ends."
Wheeler fired back: "This is no more a plan to regulate the Internet than the First Amendment is a plan to regulate first speech."
The Democratic commissioners rallied to the chairman's side. Commissioner Mignon Clyburn compared the FCC's action to the writing of the Bill of Rights, while Commissioner Jessica Rosenworcel argued that the agency has a "duty to protect what has made the Internet the most dynamic platform for free speech ever invented."
The major Internet providers are expected to sue to overturn the new regulations. And Republicans in Congress are working on their own counterpart legislation that would enforce net-neutrality protections without classifying the Internet as a "telecommunications service." Democrats have so far refused to negotiate, preferring to wait for the FCC to take action first.
The FCC has long used Title II, which was first enacted in 1934, to regulate phone companies. Thursday's vote by the commission overturns a 2002 decision by the George W. Bush-era FCC that excluded broadband from Title II in a bid to encourage broader deployment.
The section includes hundreds of rules and procedures designed to ensure universal access and fair prices. The FCC on Thursday voted to waive Title II provisions controlling prices and requiring the providers to allow competitors to use their networks. The commission also does not plan to immediately impose fees on monthly broadband bills, as it does on phone bills.