You probably haven't heard many of these names before. But they are important, both in terms of the terrorist plots they either planned or executed, and in how the U.S. government treated them once they became prisoners, according to the newly released Senate Intelligence Committee's torture report.
Here is a dossier of the detainees, what we know about them, their current location, why they were detained, and the treatment they underwent at CIA facilities in the years following 9/11.
Name: Khalid Sheikh MohammedCurrent location: Guantánamo Bay.Reason for detainment: Mastermind of 9/11 terrorist attacks.Treatment received: One of the U.S. government's most-wanted men, Mohammed endured a more rigorous schedule of torture than any other detainee on this list. In total, interrogators waterboarded him 183 times, including five times in one 25-hour period. He was also subjected to more than a week of sleep deprivation at once. Read a more extensive account of his long, brutal interrogation here.
Name: Rafiq Bashir al-HamiCurrent location: Transferred to Slovakia in 2010.Reason for detainment: Thought by the Defense Department to have "likely links to European al-Qaida and North African Extremist Network facilitators."Treatment received: Was "subjected to 72 hours of sleep deprivation between his arrival at the detention site pseudonymed COBALT and his October 2002 interrogation," according to the Senate's report.
Name: Tawfiq Nasir Awad al-BihandiCurrent location: Unknown.Reason for detainment: Unknown.Treatment received: Was "subjected to 72 hours of sleep deprivation between his arrival at detention site Cobalt and his October 2002, interrogation."
Name: Hikmat Nafi ShaukatCurrent location: Unknown.Reason for detainment: Suspected of being involved with al-Qaida and chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear efforts. Though it was determined that his involvement was "limited to personal relationships with former neighbors," he remained in the CIA's custody.Treatment received: A "regimen of limited sleep deprivation."
Name: Lufti al-Arabi al-GharisiCurrent location: Unknown.Reason for detainment: Unknown.Treatment received: "Underwent at least two 48-hour sessions of sleep deprivation in October 2002."
Name: Muhammad Ahmad Ghulam Rabbani (aka Abu Badr)Current location: Guantánamo Bay.Reason for detainment: An "admitted al-Qaida facilitator," according to a Defense Department memorandum, who worked directly for KSM. He "provided support" to multiple terrorist plots in the Middle East and "possibly" in the U.S.Treatment received: "Subjected to forced standing, attention grasps, and cold temperatures without blankets in November 2002."
Name: Gul RahmanStatus: Deceased.Reason for detainment: A "suspected militant," per a 2010 report by the Associated Press.Treatment received: Cited by the Senate report as the only detainee who died from the CIA's interrogation, Rahman was subjected to "'48 hours of sleep deprivation, auditory overload, total darkness, isolation, a cold shower, and rough treatment'" during his time at the Cobalt detention site. One night in November 2002, he was "shackled to the wall of his cell," resting on the bare concrete floor. Wearing only a sweatshirt and naked from the waist down, he was found dead—likely of hypothermia—the next day. Other factors in his death included "dehydration, lack of food, and immobility due to 'short chaining.'"
Name: Abd al-Rahim al-NashiriCurrent location: Guantánamo Bay.Reason for detainment: Suspected mastermind of the October 2000 bombing of the USS Cole. Thought to have spearheaded al-Qaida operations in the Persian Gulf.Treatment received: Subjected to waterboarding at least three times, al-Nashiri also received threats about his family. Interrogators implied that "his mother would be brought before him and sexually abused" and that they could "bring [his] family in here."
Other psychological interrogation was used as well. After blindfolding him, an interrogator "placed a pistol near al-Nashiri's head and operated a cordless drill near al-Nashiri's body." Improvised stress positions "caused cuts and bruises," and one medical officer feared the positions would dislocate al-Nashiri's shoulders. In a "short-lived hunger strike," the CIA kept him alive by "force feeding him rectally" in a forward-facing position "with head lower than torso."
In 2005, a CIA psychologist deemed al-Nashiri to be on the "verge of a breakdown."
Name: Ramzi Bin al-ShibhCurrent location: Guantánamo Bay.Reason for detainment: Thought to be a key operative of 9/11.Treatment received: After interrogators found al-Shibh "'cowering in the corner, shivering' when the light in his cell burned out," they began to use that weakness against him. To "heighten his sense of fear," they shackled al-Shibh's hands and feet while he stood "'with hands over his head, naked, in total darkness.'"
A key feature of al-Shibh's proposed interrogation plan was "sensory dislocation." That included "exposing him to loud noise in a white room with white lights." To wear him down before he had a chance to cooperate, the plan directed that al-Shibh "be shackled nude with his arms overhead in a cold room before any discussion with interrogators or any assessment of his level of cooperation." The questioning would begin after his "'initial resistance level [had] been diminished by the conditions.'" The plan also stated that other enhanced-interrogation techniques be used "appropriate to [bin al-Shibh's] level of resistance," including "attention grasp, walling, the facial hold, the facial slap ... the abdominal slap, cramped confinement, wall standing, stress positions, sleep deprivation beyond 72 hours, and the water board."
Though al-Shibh "was previously a relatively high-functioning individual," these techniques brought on an "onset of psychological problems," according to CIA assessments. His anxiety and social isolation for as long as two and a half years led to "visions, paranoia, insomnia, and attempts at self-harm." A CIA psychologist suggested that "'significant alterations" be made to his detention environment "to prevent further and more serious psychological disturbance." When he was transferred to Guantánamo Bay, he was put on "anti-psychotic medications."
Name: Asadallah (aka Muhammad Umar 'Abd al-Rahman)Current location: Unknown.Reason for detainment: Unknown.Treatment received: "Interrogators used water dousing, nudity, and cramped confinement on Asadallah without having sought or received authorization from CIA Headquarters ... the application of 'bathing' in the case of Asadallah was done punitively and was used as an interrogation technique."
Asadallah was also "left in the standing sleep -deprivation position despite a sprained ankle. Later, when Asadallah was placed in stress positions on his knees, he complained of discomfort and asked to sit. Asadallah was told he could not sit unless he answered questions truthfully." Asadallah "was also placed in a 'small isolation box' for 30 minutes, without authorization and without discussion of how the technique would affect his ankle."
Name: Mustafa al-HawsawiCurrent location: Guantánamo Bay.Reason for detainment: Thought to be a key organizer and financier of 9/11.Treatment received: CIA records indicate that after al-Hawsawi was subjected to rectal feeding and rehydration, he was "later diagnosed with chronic hemorrhoids, an anal fissure, and symptomatic rectal prolapse."
He was also subjected to water dousing without approval from CIA headquarters. "Water was poured on al-Hawsawi while he was lying on the floor in a prone position, which, in the opinion of at least one CIA interrogator quoted in the report, 'can easily approximate waterboarding.'"
At one point, al-Hawsawi had an unspecified medical emergency. "After failing to gain assistance from the Department of Defense, the CIA was forced to seek assistance from three third-party countries in providing medical care to al-Hawsawi and four other CIA detainees with acute ailments."
Name: Abu KhalidCurrent location: Unknown.Reason for detainment: Unknown.Treatment received: Khalid was subjected to sleep deprivation without authorization from CIA headquarters, despite such authorization being required under CIA guidelines because of how long he had been in detention before the method's use.
Name: Laid Ben Dohman Saidi (aka Abu Hudhaifa)Current location: Released from CIA custody.Reason for detainment: "He was released because the CIA discovered he was likely not the person he was believed to be."Treatment received: "Abu Hudhaifa was subjected to baths in which ice water was used, standing sleep deprivation for 66 hours that was discontinued due to a swollen leg attributed to prolonged standing, nudity, and dietary manipulation."
Name: Abd al-Karim (aka Al-Shara'iya)Current location: Unknown.Reason for detainment: Unknown.Treatment received: "In April 2003, CIA detainees Abu Hazim and Abd al-Karim each broke a foot while trying to escape capture and were placed in casts," the report finds. Despite requests that interrogators "forego [sic] cramped confinement, stress positions, walling, and vertical shackling" due to injury, "Abd al-Karim was nonetheless subjected to two 45-minute sessions of cramped confinement, repeated walling, and a stress position that involved placing his 'head on [the] wall, bent at waist, shuffled backwards to a safe, yet uncomfortable position.' As part of sleep deprivation, he was also 'walked for 15 minutes every half-hour through the night and into the morning.' A few days later, medical personnel found that, even given the best prognosis, Abd al-Karim 'would have arthritis and limitation of motion for the rest of his life.' "
Name: Abu HazimCurrent location: Unknown.Reason for detainment: Unknown.Treatment received: "In the interrogation of Abu Hazim, a waste bucket was removed from his cell for punishment. According to a CIA cable, Abu Hazim 'requested a bucket in which he could relieve himself, but was told all rewards must be earned.'" Along with Abd al-Karim, Hazim sustained a foot injury during his capture. He "was subjected to walling, despite CIA Headquarters having not approved its use." Hazim was also "water doused in a way that approximated waterboarding."
Name: Sayyid IbrahimCurrent location: Unknown.Reason for detainment: Unknown.Treatment received: "CIA cables indicate that Sayyid Ibrahim was subjected to sleep deprivation from January 27, 2004, to January 30, 2004, which exceeded the 48 hours approved by CIA Headquarters."
Name: Abu Yasir al-Jaza'iriCurrent location: Unknown.Reason for detainment: Linked to al-Qaida operations in Pakistan.Treatment received: Subjected to water dousing at the Cobalt detention site.
Name: Suleiman AbdullahCurrent location: Unknown.Reason for detainment: Unknown.Treatment received: "Interrogators requested approvals to use the CIA's enhanced-interrogation techniques on Suleiman Abdullah, including water dousing. CIA Headquarters then approved other techniques, but not water dousing ... Suleiman Abdullah was nonetheless subjected to water dousing."
This article is from the archive of our partner National Journal.