Several aides said Tuesday night that they believed that Nelson's vote against the bill was an error. Rumors swirled in the privacy sphere and among Senate Democrats and on social media that either Nelson had accidentally voted no or that a clerk had misunderstood him.
But after not explaining the rationale for his vote Tuesday night despite multiple requests from the media, Nelson's staff told National Journal Wednesday that he had always intended to oppose the bill and did not ask Democratic leadership to hold the vote open or indicate that he would change his answer.
Thanks to that opposition from Nelson and another "nay" from longtime privacy advocate Sen. Rand Paul of Kentucky, who was considered a crucial vote, Senate Judiciary Chairman Patrick Leahy came up two votes short of the 60 he needed to advance the USA Freedom Act on Tuesday night. The bill failed, and it is unclear if it will resurface in the next Congress, at least in the same form.
Had Nelson changed his vote, however, he would have gotten advocates to 59 yea votes, a potentially magic number.
Paul, who is believed to be a likely candidate for president in 2016, said last week that he felt the bill did not go far enough to curb the NSA's powers and he was concerned about an additional piece of the legislation that would renew portions of the Patriot Act for another two years, including a controversial part known as Section 215, from which the intelligence community derives much of its authority for its bulk surveillance practices.
But sources close to the negotiations said Paul's staff had indicated that the Kentuckian was considering voting to allow debate on the USA Freedom Act because Majority Leader Harry Reid had made the unusual decision to allow amendments on the floor, which would have allowed Paul to try to strengthen certain provisions. Late Tuesday afternoon, Paul's communications director, Sergio Gor, said, "No decision yet," when asked if Paul would vote to advance the bill.
After the vote, Paul's team cast his opposition as a vote to block the continuation of the Patriot Act, making no mention of the other NSA reforms in a press release Tuesday evening. "Today's vote to oppose further consideration of the Patriot Act extension proves that we are one step closer to restoring civil liberties in America," Paul said in the statement.
But just after leaving the Senate floor Tuesday night, Paul told reporters that he "felt bad" for opposing the bill, acknowledging that his vote was likely crucial for supporters.
In the moments leading up to the vote, Paul sat pensively in a chair on the Senate floor, as one Democratic staffer observing the vote noted, "We're watching Paul, everyone is."
But Paul did not speak during the debate, as Sen. Ted Cruz, also an expected 2016 presidential contender, made one final attempt to rally more Republicans behind the USA Freedom Act. Florida Republican Marco Rubio, who may also be weighing a 2016 bid for the White House, rose to the floor to warn that curtailing the NSA could endanger the security of Americans and allow another attack akin to the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.