Second Thought On Giuliani
I wrote below that we "know all about [Rudy Giuliani's] theory of police management," but that's actually wrong. What we know is what he says about his theory. Since several aspects of NYPD conduct were changed more-or-less simultaneously, there's actually a lively dispute as to which policies were and were not efficacious and what was effective about them. There's also a great deal of lingering uncertainty as to what, exactly, it is that zero tolerance policing achieves. Does cutting down on "quality of life" offenses actually reduce the violent crime rate, or is casting a wide net simply a useful way of incidentally arresting people who were actually committing more serious violations that the police don't necessarily know about?