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Nixon and the Square Majority: Is the Fox a Lion? - Page 2
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n all these ways (despite the bridge analogy), President has been playing political poker, playing it with cool competence. Here it is necessary to be fair, which it is sometimes difficult with Mr. Nixon, as it was with President Johnson. President Nixon certainly wants to go down in history as a good, and if possible a great, President, although with less anguished eagerness than the ill-starred Johnson. He is aware that the best way to do this is to do what is good for the country, and that this is also a good way to win re-election. These considerations certainly affected, to cite four examples, his decisions to initiate a controlled retreat from Vietnam, to establish contact with Peking, to reverse his economic policy, and to ask a minimum income for the poor. But there was really no more ideal passion in such moves than a good poker player might bring to a hard-played session of the game.
A British general, Sir Robert Thompson, remarked after an interview with Mr. Nixon that he was "America's first professional President." The remark may exaggerate the case, but there is something to it. Only the most passionate Nixonophilesa rare breedwould claim that he has offered the country inspiring leadership. But at least he has so far avoided disaster, and at least his lack of ideological baggage has permitted him to do some things badly needed to be doneand spinach to Republican orthodoxy. In this writer's opinion, he has been a better President than his long years as an aspirant to the presidency could have led a prudent man to expect. He has done a better job as a President than as a politician who wanted to be President.
Yet Mr. Nixon remains an eminently defeatable President. This is strange, for incumbent Presidents are very hard to beatonly two have been defeated in this century. It is easy to imagine another sort of manNelson Rockefeller, saydoing essentially the same things that Nixon has done, and having, by this time, such an armlock on the presidency as to make the Democratic nomination hardly worth accepting.
The reason Richard Nixon does not have an armlock on the presidency is that he was not designed by God to be a politician. True, he is a brilliant politician in one sense: he has displayed great skill in using the powers of his office, plus his own lack of ideological baggage, to forestall and enfeeble
the opposition. But that is only one function of a politician. The other function of a politician is to get people to like him, so that they will vote for him.
Most major politicians are likable fellowsif they hadn't been, they would not have become politicians. Nixon went into politics the way other young men home from the wars went into construction, or merchandise, or whateverfor lack of anything better to do. If he had not answered the famous ad by the
Whittier Republican Committee seeking a candidate to oppose Congressman Jerry Voorhis, Nixon might now be a fat-cat California lawyer.
Most politicians are born, whereas Richard Nixon is a made politician. He once remarked to me: "I just can't be a buddy-buddy boy." Natural politicians are buddy-buddy boys by instinctthey are bonhomous fellows, always ready with the smile and the slap on the back. Richard Nixon has never slapped a back in his life, and his smile often seems a difficult muscular exercise. He is so totally non-bonhomous that his small talk, as on that occasion at the Lincoln Memorial, can be agonizingly embarrassing. Nowadays, for ceremonial and social occasions at which a President is expected to display bonhomie, aides prepare the President suggested topics of meaningless versation plus a selection of small jokes.
ere we come back to the third and fourth odd fact about Mr. Nixon. His grandmother and his great-grandmother on the Milhous side were both successful and regionally famous lady preachers, who roamed the Midwest to preach the gospel and oppose sin (his grandmother, like Nelson Rockefeller's, was a founder-member of the Women's Christian Temperance Union). This highly unusual genetic inheritance explains a lot about Nixon as politician.
Nixon belongs to the minority strain of the genus politicus Americanuslike Woodrow Wilson, he is of the preacher-politician strain. The genetically inspired urge to preach comes over him regularly. One was his televised broadcast explaining his decision to send troops into Cambodia. The first two thirds of the speech was a sensible explication of the military rationale of a rather minor military operation. But then the President's distaff genes took over, and the last third of the speech was a self-righteous sermonette, in which the President compared his decision with the great decisions of Wilson, Roosevelt, Eisenhower, and Kennedy, and offered up his
own political future to the righteousness of his cause. He thus grossly inflated the significance of the operation, and ensured that the nationwide protest that duly ensued would be as bitter as possible.
This preachiness, this sense of his own righteousness is as genuine as his football obsession. It is far more genuine than those who see him only as Trick E. Dixon have ever recognized. The quality helps to explain why those who dislike him detest him so heartily. They are infuriated by what one senator calls his "goddamn holier-than-thou pose"above all in a man they see as an aggressive and duplicitous politician. Yet it is important to realize that this sense of his own righteousness, which is part of his Quaker heritage, is perfectly real in Nixon.
So is his aggressiveness. Nixon is Irish on both sides, but from all accounts, his father belonged to the special breed of fighting, or Black, Irish. Those who recall Mr. Nixon Senior use words like "cantankerous," "aggressive," and "irritable" to describe him. Nixon himself has said that his father had "a hot temper," adding, "I learned early that the only way to deal with him was to abide by the rules he laid down. Otherwise, I would probably have felt the touch of a ruler or a strap as my brothers did."
Nixon is his father's son. "When I am attacked," he once told me, "my instinct is to strike back." He has a compulsion to accept a challenge, however politically unwise it may be to do so. In 1960, he was certainly unwise to accept the challenge to debate with the much less well known Kennedy. A more recent example was his decision to go to Miami in November to play Daniel in the den of the labor-union lions gathered for the AFL-CIO Convention.
His advisers unanimously urged him not to go, to send instead some bland message of appeasement to Miami; adviser George Shultz, it is said, almost went down on his knees to beg Nixon not to go. But the President's Irish blood was up. He had been attacked, and rather brutally attacked, by George Meany, and his "instinct to strike back" prevailed.
There are thoseand there are plenty of labor men among themwho are sure that this was a typical ploy by that duplicitous fellow, Trick E. Dixon, playing for sympathy and putting labor on the spot. Labor's treatment of "the President of all the people" did annoy a lot of the people, and the episode may have been worth a point or two in the polls. But it was bad long-run politics all the same.
Labor's enthusiasm for most of the liberal Democrats, including Nixon's most likely opponent in 1972 (whom George Meany refers to as "Shmuskie"), is pallid in the extreme. By no stretch of the imagination would labor have supported Richard Nixon in 1972. But labor might not have fought him very hardand that could have made all the difference. Labor's belated effort to go all out for Hubert Humphrey in 1968 came amazingly close to electing Humphrey. Now the President can be sure of one thing: the labor men, who are furiously angry, will go all out for his opponent, whatever his nameeven if his name is John Lindsay, Meany's most unfavorite candidate. Labor's undying enmity is a big political price for the President to pay for giving his Black Irish "instinct to strike back" a run in the yard.
he plain fact is that the President is not really a very good politician when he is playing the essential role of the politician-as-candidate. In his younger days as a candidate, his "instinct to strike back" led him to stage what he called "rocking, socking" campaigns. In these campaigns he was quite capable of striking back before he was struck, and striking some very low blows into the bargain.
The low blows consisted of scoring sleazy debating tricks off his opponents. Any Nixonologist can produce a long list of low blows from the early Nixon period. A prime example is the question he asked, ostensibly in a spontaneous aside, in a television broadcast in the 1954 campaign: "And isn't it grand at last to have a Secretary of State who isn't taken in by the Communists?" This oblique attack, of course, was directed at Dean Acheson and George Marshall. It had all the earmarks of the classic Nixon low blowa rhetorical question, delivered with carefully calculated spontaneity, suggesting a falsehood without actually stating it.
There are plenty of other examples of Nixon's tendency in those days to "make the worse appear the better reason," notably in the famous "Checkers Speech." As in that speech, the technique of suggestio falsi could be highly effective temporarily. But again, it was bad politics. It left a bad taste in the mouths of many uncommitted voters who might otherwise have voted for Nixon, and that bad taste was certainly one major reason why Nixon missed the White House in 1960.
Nixon is not a fool. As he grew older and wiser, he came to realize that although those "rocking, socking" attacks might win him the plaudits of the committed, the bad taste in so many uncommitted mouths was bad politics. After about 1956, it is hard to find a really vintage Nixonism, though there have been occasional echoes. His 1968 campaign consisted largely of distaff-style sermonettes, with very little rocking or socking. The result was blandness, with cosmetic touches supplied by his retinue of P.R. experts. By Novemberas a result of national tediumhe had almost completely lost his big early lead.
The fact is that as a candidate for office, Nixon has consistently been a thoroughly second-rate politician. He is a second-rate politician simply because he is not a natural politician, because he was made, not born. It took an amazing concatenation of circumstances, from Lyndon Johnson's withdrawal to Rockefeller's tergiversations to Humphrey's disaster at the hands of the left in Chicago, to make him President. But Richard Nixon is President, and there is a vast difference between the situation of a politician who has not been elected President and wants to be, and a politician who already is President and wants to go on being President. It is an old rule of American politics that the best way to get elected President is to be President already.
Being President already is an even bigger asset to Richard Nixon than it is to most Presidents. As President, Nixon doesn't have to try to be a buddy-buddy boy anymoreand he doesn't try. "The dignity of the presidency is a very big thing with him," says an aide. "Even before he was inaugurated, the word went out that we were always to wear a coat and tie in his presence. And of course we still do."
One of the President's favorite passages is General de Gaulle's disquisition in his autobiography on the need for a national leader to maintain distance, mystery, and aloofness. Richard Nixon is no De Gaulle, but he clearly enjoys the distance the office of the presidency puts between him and other people.
"None of us is really close to him," says an aide. "He's like a polite but distant hermithe emerges every once in a while from his cave, blinks in the light, and then goes back in again. There's a kind of inwardness about the man."
Nixon likes guarding his own inwardness: he feels comfortable with himself, according to those who see him daily, and more and more so as the years of presidency have passed and no great disaster has overtaken him. He feels now bien dans sa peau ("well in his skin"), as the French say, in a way that he never did during his long, hard crawl to the top. The Bible warns that a man cannot, by taking thought, add a cubit to his stature. But there is one way a man can add a cubit to his statureby getting elected President.
Nixon clearly hopes to add another cubit by getting re-elected, this time by a safe majority, and presiding triumphantly over the American bicentennial. He remains a defeatable incumbent, essentially because he is so unnatural a politician and therefore so unlovable a public figure. But most political pros, Democrats included, would give him a slightly better-than-even chance to be re-elected. In that case, we are likely to find out at last what manner of man this odd and idiosyncratic person really is. Perhaps we will find out even before next November.
Except for Dwight Eisenhower, a lucky man, every President in recent history has faced his testing time. If Richard Nixon serves a full eight years, his seems almost mathematically sure to come. It could come abroad, of course, in a confrontation with the Soviets in the Middle East or elsewhere. It seems more likely to come at home. And it seems most likely to involve the centrifugal force which is operating so powerfully in this country.
"What has been pulling us apart?" Daniel Patrick Moynihan asked in his leaked memorandum to the President. "One wishes one knew." Mr. Moynihan's answer is hardly satisfactory, but his question is the central question that confronts the country.
American society has always been fragile. Europeans who talk about American "conformism" have been exposed only to a small minority of such racial and social diversity, and the country's very bigness and industrial complexity add always to the threat of internal conflict. Indeed, except in rare moments of a universally perceived external threat, as after Pearl Harbor, the United States has never achieved more than a surface appearance of unity. Abraham Lincoln and Franklin Roosevelt, perhaps the two greatest Presidents in our history, both presided over a nation rent and riven by disunity.
The United States is not going to turn into one big happy family, even when the Vietnam tragedy is at last behind us. The danger is that the pulling-apart
process may get out of hand, and that the President, whom Walter Lippmann once described as a naturally divisive politician, will be tempted to encourage and exploit the process.
The liberal intellectuals of academia and the media are for the most part isolated from certain harsh realities of American politics. It comes as a
shock to them when, for example, the 1968 polls show the public overwhelmingly in favor of Mayor Daley's cops and against "the kids" in Chicago; or when a Newsweek poll shows the public blaming the students rather than the National Guard for the Kent State tragedy by a margin of three to one; or
when the evidence mounts that both busing for purposes of racial balance in schools and "scatter housing" are so bitterly unpopular among middle-class
whites as to risk widespread violence.
The people who favored Daley's cops or blamed students at Kent State or march in protest against busing or housing projects are, by and large, Mr.
Nixon's people. They are part of the square majority which is his natural constituency, and which he intends to grapple to his bosom with hoops of steel.
Mind you, it is the object of the great game to seek a majority, and when Franklin Roosevelt, for example, was seeking his majority, he was not particularly forebearing toward the "money changers in the temple" and his other favorite enemies. It is silly to expect a Republican President to talk and behave like a liberal Democrat, as so many liberal Democratic commentators seem to expect him to do. Moreover, Richard Nixon has been a better politician-as-President than his record as a politician-as-candidate might have led one to expect.
nd yet ... and yet. One senses that a time may be coming when the fragile political and social structure of this country may be threatened as rarely before, and however fair one may wish to be, it is impossible not to worry about how Mr. Nixon might react to such a crisis, especially if he himself were in political trouble. There is that lack of any deep ideological commitment, that instinctive conviction that to win is everything. There is the self-righteousness, the genetic urge to preach, the "instinct to strike back."
Especially if the economy began to go really sour, and he himself were under bitter attack from the left, the President would be subjected to a powerful temptation to exploit the furies and frustrations of the square majority by directing that majority's wrath against the unsquare minority. It may be said that he has done so already, notably in the 1970 campaign. But in general, as President, he has played within the very flexible rules of the political game.
To an extent astonishing in retrospect, a mere senatorJoe McCarthyalmost tore the country apart when he refused to play by the rules of the game in exploiting the fears and frustrations of the square majority. Vice President Richard Nixon, after all, never repudiated or even criticized McCarthy, and there is enough McCarthyism of the left to give him self-righteous excuses for playing the game the same way. A President who played that sort of game might break the whole American structure apart.
"The prince must be a lion," Machiavelli wrote, "but he must also know how to play the fox." Mr. Nixon knows how to play the fox, all right. This is not said in denigrationto lead this stubborn country, a President must also be a shrewd and sometimes duplicitous politician. Lincoln and Roosevelt were among the shrewdest and most duplicitous.
The question remains: Can the fox also play the lion? In the time of domestic crisis that may lie ahead, can the President summon up in himself the large-mindedness and courage to withstand the opportunity to exploit the centrifugal force in our society to his own advantage, and instead to make whatever political sacrifice may be necessary to control the process which threatens the fragile American political and social structure?
No one can make any firm prediction, of course. But my own instinct is that the answer to that question would almost certainly be "yes"if Mr. Nixon had once been safely re-elected to a second and last term. Then Richard Nixon would never have to worry again about being a buddy-buddy boy or maneuvering for the votes of people who do not much like him. The danger is in the immediate future, in the coming campaign. If the election is close, and Mr. Nixon senses that he is in deep trouble, then the country could be in deep trouble too.
President Nixon's testing time, in short, may be in the presidential election months which lie immediately ahead. Indeed, his time of testing may have started already. If so, it will be interesting to see whether this strange man can bring himself to realize that the point of the game is not always only to win.
Copyright © 1972 by Stewart Alsop. All rights reserved.
The Atlantic Monthly; February 1972; Nixon and the Square Majority: Is the Fox a Lion? - 72.02; Volume 229, No. 2; page 41-47.