Contents | January/Feburary 2003

David Friedman: Further reading for "One-Dimensional Growth"
The sustainability and extent of America's reported productivity gain has been most significantly challenged by Northwestern University economist Robert Gordon. His argument, including a historical perspective on the issue of U.S. productivity, can be found in an a chapter he has written in Technological Innovation and Economic Performance, Chapter 3: The United States which is available on-line at:

Gordon's initially provocative analysis of America's productivity performance was published in 1999 as Has the 'New Economy' Rendered the Productivity Slowdown Obsolete? and is available at:

A good summary of the contrary perspective and references for further reading is found in John B. Carlson, Why the Optimism? Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, April 1, 2002 at:

The manufacturing sector's contribution to income equality, social advancement for working and middle class Americans, and general economic vitality is discussed in a report by the Milken Institute, Manufacturing Matters: California's Performance and Prospects, August 2002, available at:

and by Thomas Palley in Manufacturing Matters, The Impact on Productivity Growth, Wages and Income Distribution, AFL-CIO, October 1999:

A Business Week summary of a fascinating study by Andrew B. Bernard of Dartmouth College and J. Bradford Jensen of the Census Bureau that links manufacturing sectoral decline with inequality on a regional basis can be found in "Why the Wage Gap Widened and Why it Has Been Narrowing," available at:

The role that anti-industrial, white-collar developer interest played in reshaping the New York economy is recounted in Robert Fitch, The Assassination of New York (hardcover 1993; softcover 2002), and Fitch's general argument is summarized in an article he wrote in the Gotham Gazette that analyzes, post-9-11, the construction of the World Trade Center, A Mistake In The First Place:

Issues related to the American trade deficit have been discussed in The Atlantic, April 2002, "The Other Deficit."

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