This article is from the archive of our partner .

You always hear about the lack of women CEOs, but what about the ratio of men and women at the rungs right below the top, the senior executives? Two social scientists graphed the ratio of men to women based on education, salary, and senior executive title, the step right below CEO.

Guilford College Professor Richard L. Zweigenhaft and University of California at Santa Cruz Professor G. William Domhoff found that it wasn't education that was stopping women from reaching uppermost rungs of business. Instead, it was team sports-based corporate culture and an in-group bias from the men already in power that kept women from the top, they predicted. Women still struggle with fewer promotions due to golf culture and just not being similar enough to the hirers. This was gleaned using public data and pictures of more than 3,000 people in 262 Fortune 500 companies. The ratio of men to women receiving law degrees and MBAs was nearly 1:1 (across every race) as shown by the red-orange and dark blue bars hugging the "1" line on the y-axis.

Compare that to the much higher dusty blue and tan bars, which represent the high number of men who earn $250,000 or are in senior positions. For white men and women, more than six men get a top salary for every one woman who gets a top salary.

What does it mean? While women match their male counterparts in school, for whatever reason, they drop off before getting high salaries and powerful titles in the working world.

For more analysis, go to the post at TheSocietyPages.org.

This article is from the archive of our partner The Wire.

We want to hear what you think about this article. Submit a letter to the editor or write to letters@theatlantic.com.