As if Pakistan doesn't have enough problems in the hinterlandthe ongoing duel with India over Kashmir, the lawless border with Afghanistan—trouble is brewing in its westernmost province, Baluchistan, according to a new study from the Carnegie Endowment. Baluch nationalists, who claim a distinct ethnic identity going back 2,000 years, have clashed with the central government several times over the past fifty years, most recently in the mid-1970s, when a rebellion left nearly 8,000 dead. The province is strategically located (it borders both Iran and Afghanistan) and rich in resources (it provides more than 40 percent of Pakistan's energy), and its stability is crucial to Islamabad. But ire is building over a number of issues. The Baluchs feel inadequately compensated for the country's use of their province's resources and believe they are not benefiting sufficiently from economic development. In addition, they oppose the government-promoted spread of political Islam (though they are largely Muslim themselves). Another insurrection appears to be in the offing: attacks on Pakistani troops and sabotage of oil pipelines are escalating. Although the Carnegie report expresses doubt that the Baluchs could win a war for independence, it warns that "the risk of a prolonged guerrilla movement … is quite real."
—"Pakistan: The Resurgence of Baluch Nationalism," Frédéric Grare, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
The end of apartheid, in 1994, not only made black South Africans significantly freer; it also made them significantly poorer, according to a study by the National Bureau of Economic Research. Average incomes for all races dropped by 40 percent between 1995 and 2000, the last year studied in depth (there's no evidence that they've rebounded since). Blacks and the young saw the greatest declines, and the black-white income gap, which had been gradually shrinking since the 1970s, grew markedly after 1994. This is perhaps not surprising: political liberalization, the authors note, opened South Africa's economy to global competition. And in developed economies the income gap between those with disparate levels of education—a gap that favors South Africa's whites—tends to widen.