by Jean-Luc Duval.Rizzoli, $60.00. The author maintains that the numerous schools and styles of twentieth-century art all have their origins in the years 1884-1914, a period in which painters, sculptors, architects, and decorators strove to adjust their work to an increasingly technological and scientific society. Why spend hours painting a realistic tree when the camera can capture it in seconds? was the simple question. Professor Duval traces the reciprocal influences and sophisticated experiments that flourished during that time; he supports his findings with facts, quotations, and anecdotes; he discovers, in the end, a coherent pattern of purpose among artists superficially diverse to the point of chaos. The book is splendidly illustrated with plates chosen to support and even to expand the textual discussion. Index.