Edward E. Whiting has for many years been a politically minded journalist — especially New England politics — and from the beginning of Calvin Coolidge’s career, a friend and close observer of the President. New Englanders know him well as the author of the keen and whimsical political comment which appears in the Boston Herald as ‘Whiting’s Column.’ ¶Most accounts of the Ku Klux Klan are by special investigators who go forth to find a story — and a good one. We publish this month the account of a man who simply went home and found that all his friends and ‘the best people in town’ belonged to the Klan. Lowell Mellett is a newspaper man, once managing editor of Collier’s Weekly. He writes: —

I’m as much opposed to the Klan now as I was when it first showed its hood, but, as the enclosed article will indicate, I’ve come to believe that much of the present opposition only serves to strengthen the organization. I’ve been back home in Indiana and I’ve found great numbers of the folks I used to know are Klansmen. You know they absolutely dominated the last state election. They claim, perhaps with some good ground, credit for the election of Senator Ralston; they may later claim credit for electing him President.

The story of the Klan in Indiana is not the story that is told of the Klan elsewhere, though it may be the true story of the Klan elsewhere. I don’t know, I’ve stuck to Indiana, about which I do know.

Katharine Fullerton Gerould is an old contributor, whom Atlantic readers know both for her short stories and her keen comment upon American life and manners.

Some of the struggle, the romance, and the salt of the sea, Arthur Mason is pouring into his sketches for the Atlantic. For forty years he followed the sea, first as a sailor before the mast, later as an officer on merchant sailing-ships. John Jay Chapman, American poet and essayist, is the author of A Glance Toward Shakespeare, William Lloyd Garrison, and many volumes of verse and prose. (DEAR READER, — No, vill is n’t a misprint for rill, as you can learn from Webster or Murray. The place the poet had in mind is Great Tew. If the reader knows it, he certainly knows what a vill is.) Arthur Pound, author of The Iron Man in Industry, by turns a printer, editor, and farmer, is now a leader-writer for a New York paper. Cornelia J. Cannon, wife of Professor W. B. Cannon, the biologist, is the author of many much-discussed Atlantic papers. ¶A lawyer of Jersey City, Richard Boardman, sends us this month his first contribution to the Atlantic, born of his legal experience with divorce. ¶A young lawyer and poet, Archibald MacLeish, is about to bring out a new book of poetry to be published by Houghton Mifflin Company. Joseph Warren Beach is Professor of English at the University of Minnesota, and author of The Method of Henry James.W. F. C. Thacher, a writer new to the Atlantic, has put into his story a very perfect reflection of a small boy’s mind.

H. Phelps Putnam, one of the younger group of American poets, is the author of ‘A Lost World’ (three sonnets) in the June Atlantic.William Beebe’s ‘A Midnight Beach-Combing’ has his old qualities of biological drama — one might say — and scientific accuracy. Margaret Emerson Bailey is a new Atlantic contributor. Robert Pierpont Blake is a member of the department of history at Harvard College. Rose Peabody Parsons, a daughter of the headmaster of Groton School, and now the wife of Dr. Barclay Parsons of New York, served through the war as a nurse in France. Lucy Truman Aldrich, whose vivid account of her experiences with Chinese banditti, confirms anew our confidence in the gallant courage and enduring humor of American women, is the eldest daughter of the late Nelson W. Aldrich, United States Senator from Rhode Island. At the time of her kidnapping, Miss Aldrich was going round the world for the second time, and was on her way to Peking, where she planned to spend several months. Her love of art, especially Oriental art, carries her far afield, and being very deaf she finds her greatest diversion and recreation in traveling. Miss MacFadden, who is mentioned several times in the letter, lives with Miss Aldrich as friend and companion. ‘Mathilde’ is Mathilde Schoneberg, a French woman and Miss Aldrich’s maid for twenty-five years.

Mark O. Prentiss is an American industrial engineer who went to Constantinople under the auspices of the Near East Relief. His mission was to organize industrial employment, if possible, for the thousands of pauperized refugees. Later, at Admiral Bristol’s request, he visited Smyrna, and was present when the city was captured and burned by the Turks. He was put in charge of the evacuation of refugees by the United States naval authorities, — an appointment confirmed by the Smyrna local committee, — and talked with the principal leaders, including Mustapha Kemal. At one time, three hundred Turkish soldiers assisted him; at another he was arrested by the Turks for using a camera, and ordered to be shot. Fortunately, through wit and courage he won over his executioners and hobnobbed with them for the remainder of the day. Mr. Prentiss is not himself a writer, and the story was written by John Bakeless, managing editor of the Living Age, who heard the whole from the lips of Mr. Prentiss and has recorded it for the readers of the Atlantic. Sir Frederic Maurice, who was present at the sessions of the League of Nations during the Italian-Greek crisis, is a MajorGeneral in the British Army. He was military adviser to the Cabinet during the war, and director of military operations of the Imperial General Staff in 1915-1916. Captain O. H. Daniel of the Royal Navy (Retired) collaborated with Admiral Consett in the preparation of his book, The Triumph of Unarmed Forces the thesis of which goes to show that certain commercial interests in England were largely responsible for the prolongation of the war. Admiral Consett was stationed as Naval Attaché in Scandinavia during the war, a port from which he followed the question of British exports to Scandinavia: exports which, as a rule passed on into German territory.

Was Ramsay Traquair just? The national jury which sat on ‘Women and Civilization’ was interested — no doubt about that — but the returns were mixed. Among men the ‘Ayes’ had it, but perhaps that is natural. The odd thing is that many women voted Aye too, though some with reservations.

DEAR ATLANTIC, —
You will have a storm of protest over Mr. Traquair’s article, but at least one woman agrees with him! Unquestionably our gifts are more practical than imaginative. But there is a reason for the popular fallacy to the contrary: the average woman is more imaginative than the average man, also she is more executive. She does however never attain first place in any profession, business, or career, and the reason is that her mind is never that of a leader, never the supernormal, just as it is never the lowest type of subnormal. In all coeducational schools and colleges it is a matter of common knowledge that the highest and lowest places belong to the boys. The top rungs of the ladder and the bottom belong to the other sex, but the middle ones are ours! Also it has been said that the creative impulse in woman finds expression in bearing children. May there not be a grain of truth in that?
(MRS.) J. B. GILMAN,

DEAR ATLANTIC, —
You would be disappointed not to hear from us, would n’t you, after that estimate of us by Mr. Ramsay Traquair in the September Atlantic. I emerged from reading the article with the tingling sensation that I have after my cold shower bath. The water was cold, but it started the circulation.
We have no arguments with which to meet the charge that we lack the divine spark of genius; the facts of history speak for themselves. We regret it, and accept it.
It is not my purpose to uphold women as educators, which may be at least a debatable question.
I only wish, in my feminine and ungifted way. to ask a timid question
If, as the author remarks of women in a welltaken point on p. 290 of the Atlantic, ‘their not taking opportunity is in itself a part of the record of their ability,’ would not the same reasoning hold for the men of this continent now so stifled by feminine training? Why don’t they rise to heights of genius in spite of their handicap? Yours, with chastened spirit,
HARRIET W. PIERSON.

DEAR ATLANTIC, —
I suppose you have many letters on the subject of Mr. Traquair’s article, ‘Women and Civilization.’ It is certainly stimulating to thought. It stimulates me so I can’t keep still. It is probably true that women have not so large an artistic imagination as men, still this may be partly due to their age-long training in petty thoughts. House-managing is made up entirely of endless jumping from one little thing to another. There cannot possibly be any concentration on one central idea as the housemother must be ready every moment to turn to a new difficulty. The difficulties, probably, are little things that take only a short time for adjustment, but they are so infinitely numerous and so absolutely unrelated to each other, that the situation inevitably produces a discursive state of mind, directly the opposite of that required for production in art, science or philosophy. . . . Mr. Traquair says women have brought the whole teaching profession into disrepute. In this assertion he has made one little mistake which changes the whole proposition: not women have done this, but men. I have several friends who teach in New York public schools, and they all say the same thing: their work requires little or no imagination, and exercise of creative thought is discountenanced — and by whom? By the political machine which controls the school system— and is composed largely of men. I agree however that boys should be taught by men much more than they are.
Mr. Traquair in his whole article has entirely neglected one factor which seems to me at least existent in the life of most married women: childbirth. What may this perhaps do to a woman’s creative faculty? How important is it in her life as a whole? The two impulses, of sex and of creation, being so closely allied, one wonders how much this has to do with the question. With women, those that have the strongest sex impulse are usually married, and their urge to create is perhaps often satisfied with children, though of course this is not always the case. With men, however, the whole thing is different; married or single they can create just the same. Perhaps their larger imaginations are equal to both impulses.
ETHEL C. GARDNER

PITTSBURG, KANSAS.
DEAR ATLANTIC, —
The women in Kansas are all mad about it, too, of course. But I should like to ask the editor if he did n’t chuckle a bit when he put ‘The Robe de Boudoir’ in the same issue?
MARGARET E. HAUGHAWOUT.

Because the Italian-Greek crisis might readily have proved a second Sarajevo, and so the spark for a world war, and because it was in the nature of a test case for the League, we are glad to publish this letter from Manley O. Hudson, professor of international law and member of the legal section of the Secretariat of the League. He comments upon a number of events that occurred after General Maurice had written and mailed the article which we publish in this number.

DEAR ATLANTIC,—
I am very much interested to find that General Maurice’s conclusions tally pretty closely with my own, although I did not have the pleasure of discussing the matter with him in Geneva.
If I would have given anything in his article a slightly different emphasis, I think it would have been the position of the Conference of Ambassadors with reference to the dispute, and the part which it played in the final settlement. For the dispute was in fact a three-cornered affair. The murder of the Italian officers was not merely an affront to Italy, but also a challenge to the authority of the Conference of Ambassadors, under which the Delimitation Commission was acting. So that I think it would have been accurate to say that Greece, Italy, and the Conference of Ambassadors were all parties to the dispute. Moreover, the Conference of Ambassadors did begin considering the whole question before Greece appealed to the Council of the League.
I am a bit surprised to find such a clear statement by General Maurice that Italy had violated the Covenant. There is surely a case to be made for the Italian contention that their seizure of Corfu was not a violation of Greece’s territorial integrity, given the precedents of the last fifty years. As to Article XII, the Italians have contended that they did not go to war or create a state of war. But I think there is no case to be made for the action of the Italians in jeopardizing the world’s peace as they did.
Developments in the situation since General Maurice’s article was written have been in line with the conclusions which he drew. Perhaps his emphasis on the reference to the Permanent Court of International Justice is the one thing which has not been borne out in the events. For the original decision of the Conference of Ambassadors to have the Court determine the amount of the indemnity to be paid by Greece was modified on September 14, in such a way that no question relating to the dispute itself has been placed before the Permanent Court of International Justice. The Italian withdrawal from Corfu, even if accomplished at the expense of Greece’s paying a very large indemnity, has now been effected as General Maurice foresaw. There remains the contest in the Assembly and the Council of the League over the measures to be taken as a result of the Italian challenge to the competence of the Council. It is difficult to believe that the Italian lawyers are really of the opinion that the Council was not competent under Article XII and Article XV of the Covenant to deal with the Greek appeal. It would be difficult also to see how the Italian contention of incompetence could be substantiated in the face of Article XI, which empowers the Council to deal with any threat of war. I am extremely pleased with General Maurice’s emphasis on the rôle of the Council as an agency of conciliation, rather than as an agency of judicial investigation. I think the Italian-Greek crisis ought to show what the League really is. It is not a super-state, it is not a League to Enforce Peace. It is a method of international life. It is a machinery for conference and consultation and for conciliation. In this view, I can only conclude with General Maurice that the League has had a real success, that the machinery has worked, and that the method has proved itself sound.
The important outstanding results are, first, though the world has passed through another Sarajevo, war has been prevented. Second, Corfu has been restored to Greece. And third, an adequate reparation has been made to Italy for the murder of the Italian officers. Surely these results should convince any doubter that the situation with the League of Nations is vastly better than the situation would have been without it.
MANLEY O. HUDSON.

In answer to a letter of ours asking about the Klan situation in Oklahoma, we have received the following from a citizen of Oklahoma: —

DEAR ATLANTIC,— You ask me about the present situation in Tulsa. Frankly I don’t know what to say. It is easy to pass the matter with the statement that we are not affected by martial law; or by the Klan either. The daily life of the city goes on as usual. But back of everything is the tense feeling that comes from the manifestation of religious bigotry, and of the secret rule of a hidden clique. The civil offices are unquestionably in the hands of the Klan; and that fact makes it impossible for the Governor to oust these officials. The testimony before the military court as to the outrages against citizens is almost incredible. Yesterday I was at the Capitol at Oklahoma City. Guards were at the doors of the House and Senate Chambers, and the Governor’s office literally swarmed with gunmen. Thirtyfive members of the House were in caucus in the Skirvin Hotel, laying plans for the self-convening of the Legislature for the purpose of impeaching Governor Walton.
Personally I do not see any satisfactory outcome of this matter until the Federal Government takes charge both of the investigation and of the military situation. The Klan is in charge of fanatics who have some idea that they are Heaven-sent crusaders to usher in a new day. The organizers have been very shrewd in gathering a large sum of money both for propaganda and for maintenance of offices and of officers. I have tried to have if not a detached at least a semi-detached view of the situation; but I feel that one does not exaggerate in saying that the Klan is the most dangerous force at large in the country to-day. For instance I have seen Tulsa in fifteen years grow from a village of twelve thousand people to a city of over a hundred thousand; and in all that time people of all religious beliefs and of all races mingled without any apparent clash. Since the Klan was organized we have had a race riot, and a continual jarring among the citizens until to-day almost the sole topic of conversation is the Klan and the Governor.
This condition I consider typical of the South and perhaps of Indiana and Ohio. I sincerely wish that someone could bring the matter to President Coolidge in such a way that he would make it known that the Federal Bureau of Investigation would be at the service of the various states in their fights against the Klan; and that in the last resort the Army would be available to maintain the State Governments. Serious opposition would then disappear in twenty-four hours.
A CITIZEN OF OKLAHOMA.