The Pilgrim's Progress of Democracy

I

Now I saw in my Dream one who went to and fro in a certain place with an anxious countenance, crying out, ‘What shall I do? What shall I do?’ And he bare a great Burden on his back.

Then I saw one coming to him and asked, ‘Wherefore dost thou cry?’

He answered: ‘Sir, I am called Citizen. I dwell with my Wife and Children in the City of Confusion, and would fain escape, but cannot find the way.’

He who had met him was called Theorist, and he said, ‘ I can point you the way.’

Said Citizen: ‘ It hath been told me that somewhere is the City of the Perfect a-building, and a command is laid upon me that I must find it and lay a foundation stone therein.’

Then said Theorist: ‘Do you see yonder Wicket-gate?’

He said, ‘I think I do.’

Said Theorist: ‘Go directly thereto, and mistake it not for any other, but go through it, and the Way will be clear to the City of the Perfect.’

Now I saw in my Dream that Citizen began to run, and the Neighbours also came out see to him run. And, as he ran, some mocked and others threatened, but he fled toward the Wicketgate. Anon, as he crossed a wide Field, another met him and questioned him, and, finding his need, said, ‘ Go to yonder Bars, and when these are down you will see the Path lying clear to the City of the Perfect, but avoid the Wicketgate.’

Then Citizen asked him his name, and he said, ‘I am Theorist, and I alone can point you the way.’

Now was poor Citizen beside himself, and, as he went on, one foot would fain go in one direction, and the other in the opposite; nor was this the worst, for there came another and counselled a Gap in the Hedge, and another a Stile, and another and another, all pointing in different directions, saying, ‘It is here, it is there, it is yonder,’ so that the whole world seemed to be pointing Fingers, and poor Citizen was well-nigh crazed.

Now with the Neighbours that had run after Citizen to make him go back was one Pliable, and he too fell into the hands of the many that were called Theorist; and he went this side and that, whichever w ay they twitched his coat, and climbed through every Gap, and went through every Wicket-gate and every pair of Bars, and they that were called Theorist had at him on all sides. And the last Citizen saw of poor Pliable he was running mad in the Field.

With that he put his fingers in his ears and ran from all of them, for he knew that, if the Way were to be found, he must find it himself, for none could tell him.

And anon he hit upon a little stony Path that had neither Bars nor Wicket, and he went stumbling along it.

Then as he went forward two men pursued him, and before he knew, they were come up with him. And the name of the one was Want, and he w as of a sickly countenance, as of one that was ever an-hungered, and he was clothed in Rags. And the name of the other was Luxury, and he was clothed in rich Cloth and Furs, and wore a gold Chain on his bosom, and his face was that of one who feasted too well. Both were old men and gray, and had fought all their lives long together, yet went they ever side by side, for they could not endure one the other, nor let each other alone. And they both plucked at poor Citizen’s garment, and he had much ado to make any headway between them.

Then there was hard complaining: Luxury, that he got not the good of his Pleasures because of the importunities of Want; and moreover, ever and anon Want robbed him; and Want, that Luxury had first robbed him, so that he was come to this pass.

Then said Citizen: ‘Be content, good neighbours, and go along with me, for in the place to which I am going are no such troubles as you have. Rather would I settle this dispute between you than to save my own soul.’

‘What,’ said Luxury, ‘and leave our Comforts behind?’

Then he had long discourse with them, and tried to make peace between them, talking pleadingly with the one and sternly with the other; but in vain, for ever Want threatened Luxury, and ever Luxury shook his fist at Want.

Then said Want: ‘Tell us what manner of place it is whither you are going?’

Citizen. There shall be no more hunger.

Want. Verily, then will I go with you.

Citizen. There shall be no more surfeiting.

Luxury. Come, Neighbour, let us go back.

Citizen. It shall be a land of lasting peace and accord between man and man. No man shall oppress another, and each shall love his neighbor as himself. Every man shall toil —

Before he knew, Citizen was walking solitary by himself, for the others had turned back; and with that he fell into a very miry Slough called the Slough of Despond, and because of the Burden that was on his back began to sink in the Mire. And when he had wallowed there for a time, he got out as best he could, for there was none could help him.

Now as Citizen went on his way, he espied one afar coming to meet him, and he said that his name was Socialist, and that he belonged to a large family, much scattered in body and in opinion.

Said Socialist: ‘Things be vastly wrong.’

‘Yea,’ said Citizen, ‘they are so.’

Then said Socialist: ‘I have a remedy for all this.’

Said Citizen: ‘Let us hear it.’

Then, when he had listened to Socialist above an hour, he asked, ‘Why talk you so much of Things?’

‘What mean you?’ said Socialist.

Said Citizen: ‘You speak but of Monies and of Wages, of Apparel, of Houses and Lands. But I have heard or read that the Perfect City consists not wholly in these things. One Plato has set down that it is builded by them that have set their desire beyond that which can be seen and touched.’

‘But,’ said the other, ‘when all things be shared, and Monies, Lands, and Houses are held in common, then will the better desire come.’

Said Citizen: ‘Nay, if you speak and think but of Things, then will the need of that which is higher desert you. It hath been told me that if one start not with a hope beyond, one will not find it by the way. Can a man hit a Mark at which he dot h not aim ? One Jesus said, “Seek ye first the kingdom of God and his righteousness.”’

Said Socialist, ‘ I understand not your discourse. Met you one Want hand in hand with Luxury?’

‘Yea,’ answered Citizen.

‘Know ye not that this state hath come about through the corruption of Rulers? Should one man go hungry while another surfeits ? ’

‘Nay,’ said Citizen.

‘Then,’ said the other, ‘when all is taken so that no man owns anything any more, and put into the Hands of them that govern that it may be evenly distributed, will not all be well?’

‘Far from it,’ said Citizen. ‘If rulers have done ill in the past when they had not all in their power, why put all into their hands that they may do worse? Let us keep some check upon them, till they are purged of all desire for possession. Men’s Natures change not with the changing of their Clothes, nor are men made angels by being named after you.’

Now they were come to a hill, and at the side of it was an Arbour. And here Socialist invited Citizen to sit; and he showed him a broad estate of Fields and Meadows and said it was all his own. And ever he discoursed bitterly of how he could in no way bring to pass that which he hoped for when all men should share alike.

‘But,’ said Citizen, ‘if you think this, why keep you this wide domain? You preach a doctrine that any can put into effect on the instant. Every man can begin Socialism whensoever and wheresoever he pleaseth. As one Bunyan hath said, “The Soul of Religion is in the Practick part.”’

Nor did Socialist like this, for he was of those that dwell in the Parlour.

Now would Citizen away from him, so he stood on his feet to go. And he said, ‘Friend Socialist, they that want are welcome to the little that I have; it is good to share meat and drink, but it is not enough. Your Nostrum sufficeth not, for this matter is deeper than appears to you. Were all that you say done, yet is our work but begun, for the City of the Perfect hath need of more enduring foundation than Raiment or Food. These and more must all men have, yet will not contentment come therewith. ’T is more than Things that be vastly wrong; ’t is minds; we must find some way to shape the Souls of men to finer Desires. You content me not, Neighbour Socialist; I must seek further beyond your thought.’

II

Then Citizen began to gird up his loins and address himself to his Journey. And he as came out on the Highway, one met him who asked him whither he would; and, when he knew his errand, directed him to go to the House of Madame Democracy, who would shew him excellent things. So he set out with right good speed to find her, and knocked at the door till at last one opened to him, and took him to the mistress of the house.

Now Madame Democracy was a large woman, of a perplexed Countenance, and she asked what he would have. When she had heard, she had him into an inner room, and Citizen saw the Picture of a very grave Person hang up against the wall. Then said Madame Democracy; ‘This man pleads a measure that would help me more than aught else in my difficulties, and it is called the League of Nations; but there be many of my family that turn a deaf ear.’

Then I saw in my Dream that Madame Democracy took him by the hand and led him into a little room where sat two Children, each one in his chair. The name of the eldest was Passion, and his other name was Revolution; and the name of the other was Patience. Now Passion kept kicking and breaking the legs of the chair he sat in, but Patience sat quiet.

Then said Madame Democracy: ‘This is Passion who would upset my whole house, and Patience who would set it to rights. Patience is the Child I love the best, but Passion is stronger in the arms and legs, and continually hath his will.’

Now Madame Democracy had much ado to keep her House in order. She was all for an honest management of affairs, but was constantly let and hindered by those of her own household, who agreed not together. Forthwith she led Citizen into a large Chamber, over the door of which was written: For the People, of the People, by the People. Yet here was Mr. Filibuster, a noisy knave, and Mr. Senator, and a little group of the family called Wilful; and with them were Mr. Facing-both-Ways, Mr. For-andAgainst, and Mr. Take-it-Back-Again. Mr. Daylight-Saving and Mr. DaylightWasting were squabbling on the threshold about the winding of the Clock, and Mr. Proletariat was in the Parlour giving himself airs. What with committees, meetings, dissensions, debates, caucuses, motions and counter-motions, riders, amendments all over the House, and Mistress Suffrage in the Pantry crying out and breaking the Plates, there was Noise enough and to spare.

Now was Madame Democracy all of a twitter, for, besides her own family, Strangers of all kinds and nations were gathering in the Courtyard to learn the ways of her Household, and it seemed not altogether well to teach those ways as they were. Moreover, Mr. I.W.W., a very scurvy Fellow, went in and out among these people, and Mr. Anarchist, a sorry Rogue. There were, also, Mr. Alien, Mr. Undesirable, Mr. Black Hand, Mr. Illiterate; and they were met by Mr. Beg-Votes, Mr. Buy-Votes, Mr. Stuff-Ballot, Mr. Roaring, Mr. Wheedling, Mr. Rioting, Mr. Striking, Mr. Thump-Cushion, and other attendants and hangers-on. Mr. Integrity, Mr. Good Intent, Mr. Honesty, and others good and staunch were there also, but they could not make their voices heard, for there was ever Mr. Dishonesty to talk against them, and of a sudden there was Mr. Bolshevik got in among them. Then one came running to say that Madame Discord who was abroad in the land was arriving in her carriage with all her train.

Then said Madame Democracy; ‘I must make ready my House before this woman enters.’ And therewith she seized a broom and began sweeping. Now the House had never been swept, and before she could make much headway Mr. I.W.W. and Mr. Bolshevik began trampling and putting about them, and the Dust began to fly so abundantly that poor Citizen was well-nigh choked. So he took his leave, and went on his way with his eyes full of dust.

Now I saw in my dream that there met him one called Mr. Walking Delegate, who had once been of the household of Madame Democracy, but was no longer there, having gone forth, taking great numbers of people with him, and set up for himself. And he was a man of masterful countenance. Then Citizen remembered him that t his man was Steward of the family of Labour, which was a large family, well known in those parts where he had dwelt, and thought well of itself. Yet they were very different one from another, for, whereas one worked hard and got little therefor, another did but talk in the Streets and on the Corners about what he lacked and what he would have. And this man, Citizen recalled to himself, he had heard in the Marketplace of the City of Confusion, talking to all passers-by about the condition of their Pockets.

I saw in my Dream that, as they walked on together, they talked, nor could Mr. Walking Delegate be drawn from speaking of what he would have for himself and those that followed him; and he talked very large of the help Mankind should get through him.

Now as they went on they saw a man ploughing in a Field, and another was harrowing, but the Steward said that these were not of his Family, nor should he strive to benefit them. And Citizen was sore puzzled, for, on the one hand, this man kept telling him how he strove with Words in behalf of men, and on the other, he was loud in crying out against ragged fellows and hungry that came running in from foreign parts, asking for work; these he was unwilling to let snatch so much as a Crust. And Citizen gathered from his talk that it was his design to set himself up Ruler in these parts, for he said, ‘ We want the Earth.’

Then Citizen, growing bold, said that it seemed to him Mr. Delegate counselled but things of this world and not the highest; and the other answered, ‘You talk as one whose head is in the shell until this day. From whom did we learn this but from them that called themselves our betters?’

And Citizen was silent, for he knew that this was true; and he set out afresh on a run for the City of the Perfect, for he was aware that it lay far away from these parts. Nor would those he met of the family of Labour be induced to go thither with him.

Now had Citizen gone but a little way from thence when one came running to tell him that the House of Madame Democracy was in Flames, having been set afire by one Imperialist, and that many had rushed thither to put them out. And first among them that came tumbling to help was young Lord Privilege, and the heir of Earl Pedigree; and the eldest son of Sir Grasp-All was with them, while the second son held back; and there were three of the sons of a poor scholar dwelling thereby; and two of the sons of Luxury had plunged in to save the house and had perished in the flames, though their brothers stayed at home; and with them that went was a son of Capitalist, now an orphan, or about to be an orphan. And while some of the family of Labour worked with right good-will, many stood by with their hands in their pockets, fingering their coin and saying, ‘How much do I get ? ’ Nor would they fall to before they knew what their wage should be. At that Citizen stood still and marveled, and thought it pity that men who bare the same name should be so different one from another.

And he heard how there was one called Pacifist who held himself higher than any other, who went even about wit h a pitcher of Oil in his hand, with the thought that he would pour it on troubled Waters; and he poured it on the Flames, whereby they greatly increased and mounted higher and higher; and Pacifist stood with a rueful countenance, nor could he understand how it was that people flocked not together to praise him.

III

Then Citizen went on his journey, and he lay for one night at a house that was built for the relief of Pilgrims, and the name of the house was Beautiful. Here he slept in the chamber called Peace, and he dreamed that he saw all men walking hand in hand together in harmony, no man asking anything for himself alone. And he awoke, and behold, it was a Dream!

Now as he went on his way, with his Burden still on his back, he perceived that he was in the Valley of Humiliation, and here he espied a foul Fiend coming to meet him: his name was Anarchy. Now the Monster was hideous to behold; he was clothed with Soviets as with scales (and they are his pride), and out of his belly came Bombs, Fire, Smoke, Pamphlets, and deadly Gas. The ground was red with the blood of those he had slain, and strewn with their bones.

When he had accosted Citizen and had heard that he was trying to escape from the City of Confusion, he straddled over the whole breadth of the way, saying, ‘Prepare thyself to die; here will I spill thy Soul.’

With that one came running thither swiftly, and it was young Mistress Boudoir Bolshevist, clad in silver Slippers and silken Scarves, and she was the adopted daughter of him who had got in lately among the household of Madame Democracy. She would fain make friends with the Monster, patting his head and saying coaxing words, and it was plain that she feared lest Citizen might hurt him. Now the Fiend was quiet for a moment, but his mouth was watering, for that he would forthwith eat her alive. So Citizen got between him and Mistress Boudoir Bolshevist, though he had no Mask to his face nor armour to his back; and with that Anarchy let fly and there were explosions, strikes, executions, massacres, revolutions and counter-revolutions, riots, so that Citizen could neither see nor hear, and young Mistress Bolshevist ran screaming away. Then, when the air was somewhat cleared, Anarchy came at Citizen with Teeth and Claw to make an end of him; but he nimbly reached out his hand for his sword, which was called Arbitration, and caught it, saying, ‘Rejoice not against me, O mine Enemy,’ and gave him a deadly thrust, which made him give back, as one that had received his mortal Wound. And with that Anarchy spread forth his dragon’s Wings and sped him away, so that Citizen saw him no more.

Now Citizen must needs go through the valley through which Anarchy had come roaring to meet him, and he found it every whit dreadful, being utterly without Order. Here was the path exceeding narrow, because of the deep Ditch on the right, into which the blind have led the blind in all ages; and the very dangerous Quag on the left, which hath no bottom. Now the Valley was as dark as pitch; and he heard on the right side groans and lamentations and curses of kings, princes, princelings, popes, dukes, lords, and all that have been tyrants in past time, and on the left, howling and yelling of the rabble, mobs, brutes, dynamiters, lynchers, assassins, and he saw that the Valley lay very near the mouth of Hell.

So he came to the end of the Valley, and there saw bones and ashes of Pilgrims who had gone this way before; and while he mused what should be the reason, he espied a cave where two giants, Imperial and Capital, dwelt in old time, by whose tyranny Pilgrims to the Perfect City had been cruelly put to death. But Citizen went past without danger, for Imperial is quite dead, and Capital, though he is yet alive, is, by reason of many shrewd brushes he hath met with of late, grown so crazy and stiff in his joints, that he can now do little more than sit in his Cave’s mouth, grinning at Pilgrims as they go by, and biting his nails.

IV

Then I saw in my Dream that, when he was got out of the Wilderness, he came to worse, for he presently saw a Town before him, and the name of that town is Vanity. And in that Town is a fair kept called Vanity Fair; it is kept age long. Here are sold all such Merchandise as Titles, Lands, Honours, Places, Preferments, Kingdoms, Principalities, Countries, Offices, Cabals, Caucuses, Hustings, Secret Treaties, Graft, Intrigues, Plans, Schemes, Theories, Protestations, Fine Professions, Dissensions, Debates. Here also are booths where all manner of apparel and of jewels is offered. Now could not tongue tell all who were there cheapening the wares. There was Mrs. Scattermind, Madame Limousine and her daughters, Mrs. Fur-Coat and Mrs. Tiara; Mistress Short-Skirt, Madame High-Shoe, and many others. There was raffling for Lands and for Houses, for Silken Skirts and for Feathers. Here was Madame Talkative, with her son. Academic Freedom, holding forth in the Market-Place, and there were many men gambling in the street called Wall, with their feet caught fast in the Stocks, so that they could not do their duty as Citizens, nor ever look for the way of Pilgrims.

And there were many others who were let and hindered for divers reasons from serving their fellows. Some were men of Religion, who should have been kindling abroad a living Faith, imprisoned in cages fashioned of certain hard Articles of Belief. Some were men of Law, manacled by long and heavy Words. And there were Women on Pedestals, falsely set up for men to worship, in such case that they could not do their part. And others were moving about in the Fair, but so bound fast in hobble skirts of Silk and Lace that they could not lift hand or foot to help. Many men were idle, though of good families that in former generations had served their Country. These kept crying out that all was bad in Vanity Fair, but lifted never a finger to clear out its Stalls and its Booths.

Now as Citizen went through the Fair, the Town was moved against him, for he spoke not their language, and cared not so much as to look at their wares, or to offer a farthing for any of them. One said mockingly, ‘What seek you then?’ and Citizen answered, ‘I seek my way to the Perfect City, and in truth I find it not here.’ At this, some mocked, others threatened, and there was hubbub and a great stir at the fair, insomuch that all order was confounded. Then was Citizen taken and beaten and brought for trial at Dusty foot Court. The Judge’s name was Lord Openmind. The Indictment was: ‘That this man had scorned all that was offered at the Fair; that he had kept his eyes fixed steadfastly on that which others could not see, and that he had well-nigh won a party to follow him.’

Then Proclamation was made that they that had aught to say against the Prisoner at the Bar should forthwith appear and give their evidence. So there came two witnesses, and behold, they were Want and Luxury that Citizen had met with on his journey. And when Luxury was sworn, he said, —

‘My Lord, this is one of the vilest men in our Country. He hath no respect for money, nor position, nor any of the gods that I and my family have worshipped from old time. Nay, he told me I had no right to the rich coat on my back while Neighbor Want was an-hungered.’

Then they sware Want, and Citizen thought in his heart, ‘Here is one will speak for me.’

But Want was loud in his accusations against the man, saying that, though Citizen had seen his Need and known his hunger, he had counselled a moment’s Patience, and had advised him not to commit Murder, nor engage in Torture, nor to make many suffer in order to compass his desires.

Then came a Crowd of witnesses who desired to speak faster than they could be sworn, and lo! most of them that Citizen had met in his journey were there to testify against him. All those called Theorist accused him, inasmuch as he had not taken the direction pointed out by any of them; the whole family of Socialist, root and branch, cried out against him, in that he had held his path toward the Perfect City and had refused theirs. Labour was for having him hanged forthwith, and many of the Household of Madame Democracy, who knew well the way to the fair, let fly at him in an angry manner. Also Mr. Democrat and Mr. Republican were loud in his condemnation, for that he had said certain adverse things of the Estate which they managed in turn.

It was held on the one hand that he had railed against the noble Lord Materialist, who is Chief Lord of the Fair, and owns all the Country thereabouts, for indeed the World has wellnigh come into his keeping, and against all the rest of the nobility, Lord Carnal Delight, Sir Grasp-All, and the rest; and, on the other, had refused to bow the knee to Mr. Proletariat, who had recently come into a large Estate, and was exacting from his tenants higher rents and deeper homage than Sir Grasp-All, who had owned the Estate before, had required. The charges against him were so many that it seemed there would not be ways enough,when the time came, to put him to death.

In the face of all this came Neighbour Pliable, who was ever at the heels of those called Theorist. Now Pliable was moved with Compassion toward his Neighbour, and for a few minutes Citizen thought he saw help; for one had started a petition in his behalf, and Pliable was all for signing it. But no sooner had he done this than one started a petition against him, and Neighbour Pliable signed this also, for he was one that liked ever to oblige and was at any man’s whistle.

So when all that had spoken had signed against him, the Judge directed his speech to the Prisoner at the Bar, saying, —

‘Thou Runagate, Heretick, and Traitor, thou hast heard what these honest gentlemen have witnessed against thee: what has thou to say?’

Said Citizen: ‘What should I say? For they affirm very different things. Wherein is my guilt?’

Judge Openmind: ‘In that thou didst not agree with them all.’

‘Nay,’ answered Citizen, ‘that can not I do, for I learned at my mother’s knee to know wherein I believe, and to stand by it, though all the powers of death and hell be against it.’

Then asked the Judge with a sneer, ‘What then dost thou believe?’

Citizen: ‘That it is not that which a man has that matters, but that which he is. If he be not right within, full of Integrity, of high Intent, of Love for his Neighbour, no outer rule nor government can set him right, nor any manner of possession make a true Man of him.’

Then the Judge called to the Jury, ‘Gentlemen of the Jury, you have heard the case against this man; it lieth now in your breasts to hang him or to save his life.’

Then went the Jury out, whose names were: Mr. Conservative, Mr. Graft, Mr. Privilege, Mr. Old Guard, Mr. Multi-millionaire, Mr. Soft-Life, Mr. Radical, Mr. Anarchist, Mr. Cruelty, Mr. Red Terror, Mr. Riot, Mr. Strike; and they unanimously concluded to bring him in guilty of death before the Judge, the first, half for reasons that contradicted those of the second half.

Now while the Jury were crying out, ‘Away with him!’ ‘Hanging is too good for him,’ and were disputing about what way they should put him to death, Citizen slipped out from among them and escaped and went his way. Not long after, as he fell to thinking of what he had seen, and how all those he had met, whether of good intent or evil intent, were convinced that a man’s life consisted in naught but that which he possessed, he fell to wondering whether men were capable of learning better. And before he knew, he was in a meadow called By-path Meadow, not far from Doubting Castle, the owner whereof was Giant Despair. Now the Giant, getting up early in the morning, caught Citizen asleep in his Grounds, and with a grim and surly voice bid him awake, and drove him into his Castle, and put him in a Dungeon, nasty and stinking to the spirits, and here he lay for three days and nights without a bit of bread or a drop of drink, or any to ask how he did. And ever and anon the Giant took his grievous crab-tree Cudgel and went down into the Dungeon and beat Citizen without mercy, so that his courage was spent, and he was near to repenting that he had gone on pilgrimage; nor did there come a day of sunshine weather when the Giant sometimes fell into Fits.

Now Citizen cared little for his own safety, but through beating and starving he well-nigh lost hope of rousing the finer desire of mankind. Then of a sudden he fell into a passion with himself, for he remembered that he had a Key in his bosom that would open any lock. And he took it out, but the lock went damnable hard; so he opened the gate and made his escape with speed.

And the name of the Key was, ‘ Carry on.’

And after he came into the King’s Highway again, he went on until he came to the Delectable Mountains; and here from one place very high he thought he saw something like the gate of the Perfect City. And after he had gone on he espied one in the Highway coming to meet him, with his back to the Perfect City, and at last he came up to him. His name was Skeptic, and he asked Citizen whither he was going. When he had heard, he fell into loud laughter, and said, ‘There is no such place as you dream of in all this World.’

‘Then,’ said Citizen, ‘we must make one.’ And he went on his way.

Now I saw in my Dream that he came at length into the country of Beulah, and here, because the Air is very sweet and pleasant, and because of the singing of Birds, and the Flowers that appeared at his feet, he had a view of the Perfect City, clearer than any he had yet seen, and the sight thereof somewhat eased his Burden.

He saw that it is fashioned of the finer Dreams, and the fairer Hopes of Mankind; its foundations also are made of the Souls of Men. Here he saw all men walking in happiness because all had given up something of Desire. None were quarrelling about Money, or Jewels, or Apparel, or Lands, because these things were no longer held in esteem. Nor did one Principle rule one day and another the next, according as it would bring more Gain. Even though he was afar off he could see that men toiled eagerly for joy in their toil, and not for Wage only. Here was inward Peace, because Carnal Desire no longer reigned. None were vain-glorious; none boasted of that which he had achieved for humanity; no man pretended high doctrine of sharing all, yet held fast to that which he possessed. Love, shown in Deeds, not Words, was law in that Land.

So Citizen went on with his Pilgrimage, with his Burden still on his back, but somewhat lightened, and ever he hoped that each step was taking him nearer that which he had seen. Yet I saw in my Dream that there was a way back to the Slough of Despond even from the Gate of the Perfect City; but whether Citizen took it or not was hidden from me.