Edmund Brook

EDMUND BROOK departed this life in February, 1866, aged twenty-eight years and four months. He was lamented by all his friends, having sustained an excellent character in every relation of life, having been a faithful servant, a devoted husband, and a kind and tender father. He was attended to his last home by every member of his late master’s family, who showed for his memory every possible mark of mourning and respect. His last request to the writer was that she would put his own account of himself, given during the last month of his life, and written down at his request, into correct language ; and though his idioms might better have expressed his meaning, yet she could not refuse in some degree to comply with this last request.

“ I remember myself first,” said Edmund, “as a little woolly-headed fellow about three feet high. I remember my looks particularly at this time, because I used to stand behind my master while he was shaving, and watch him in the glass, keeping always so exactly behind him that it was a long time before he discovered my presence. When he did this, and observed also that I was making faces behind his back in imitation of him, he took a hearty laugh. I did not know what was the matter until he turned round and caught me.

“ He seemed chiefly struck with the remarkable height to which my hair grew on the top of my head. ‘ Hallo ! ’ he cried. ‘ Come here, Jerry, Bill, June, December, — come and shear this black sheep. Shear him, and bring him back to me.’ This order was but too literally complied with, and my head was sheared so close that I was a laughingstock to the whole plantation until my wool grew out again.

“ This punishment effectually cured me of stealing behind my master to imitate him while shaving.

“But I will only take up your time and my own breath with one more incident of my childhood. When I was about twelve years old, I was dressed in a smart livery suit, and brought in to brush at master’s table. My business was to set the table, and then to stand ready, with a long brush of peacock feathers, and keep off the flies as the head waiter brought in and arranged the dishes. There was always fish or poultry for dinner ; for we lived in Beaufort in summer, if we were not travelling, and on the plantation during the winter ; and fish were always to be had merely for the taking them, and oysters, if you only picked them up. I am sorry to say that the post at which I was then placed proved one of temptation to me. When three or four o’clock came, and dinner was served, I used to be pretty hungry. To be sure, I could have got corn-bread and buttermilk all the time ; but I did not want corn-bread and buttermilk when I daily saw before me turkeys, roast fowls, and ducks, or else drum, cavallie, or bass. My master was particularly fond of drum-roe, and so was I. Therefore it chanced that half of the drum-roe used constantly to disappear before the other dishes came in. Now the head waiter was the son of the cook, and I was the grandson of the head nurse, who had nursed my master himself. My mother had also nursed all the elder children of the family; so that my family was one of far more consequence and dignity than that of Dinah the cook. Yet Dinah claimed that her mother had minded master’s father, and that her family, therefore, were of superior and more ancient descent than ours.

“ Thus there was a constant rivalry and jealousy between us, and, had I recollected these circumstances, I would have been more careful about taking the drum-roes. But at twelve years of age I had not learned the prudence to which I afterwards attained, and my indiscretion gave every advantage to my enemies against me. One day my master sent for Dinah, and told her that if she wanted to keep back any part of the dinner, and really did not get enough without it, to cut off part of the fish, but not to keep the roe. Dinah told him that she sent in all the roe, and she called her son Cæsar to prove this.

“ Cæsar, then, instead of warning my innocent youth of the trouble which was preparing for me,—although I had seen him keep many things, and had not told on him, — immediately devised a plan by which to disgrace me and to give my place to his brother. He therefore told my master that if he would consent to lose the roe for one day more, he would show him who took it. My master agreed ; but of all this I knew nothing until afterwards.

“ The next day, as usual, I helped myself to a large piece of the roe, and crammed it all into my mouth at once. But it was at least half red pepper and mustard. I threw down the brush, and ran out of the back door, roaring at the top of my voice. Every one, white and black, ran to see what was the matter.

“ My master laughed until the tears ran down his cheeks ; the children laughed and capered around me, regardless of my distress, which was real enough. I was almost suffocated. But my grandmother was infuriated ; she seized me by my hair, which had grown out, and administered such a series of boxes as speedily relieved my feelings, and turned my sorrows into a different channel.

“ ' You see yourself, maumer,’ said my master to my grandmother, who had heard his explanation of the business, addressed to the children,—'you see yourself now.’

“ ' Yes, sir, I see,’ she replied, with dignity ; ‘and if missus will excuse me for a while, I will make Edmund see too.'

“ At this I set up a fresh roar, and I begged master to punish me himself. But master said he could not be troubled with it when grandma was there to do it, and so she hauled me to the negro quarter.

“ Arrived there, she first whipped me, then she called my father and mother, and they whipped me again. Then they held a council over me.

“ ' If you had told me you was taking the roe, I would never have let master find you out; but why did you not tell me ?' said my mother, crying herself. I was comforted by this, and, kneeling down by her, I felt that I had one friend left. They discoursed to me a long time ; but I principally remember my grandmother’s closing exhortation : —

“ ' Now youare in the house, Edmund,’she said, ' you must remember that you are not a field-nigger, but a person of family and character. When I used to attend mistress to parties, there was not a lady in the shawl-room who was above speaking to me, and they all left everything they had under my charge. Now I think we have a right to take from our own master when he got plenty ; but I never take so that they can catch me. I have seen missus leave pies and cakes in her open closet for the children. I nor Louisa (my mother) never touch one, for missus would know that minute it was us. But she never misses sugar out of the barrels, or a piece of meat out of the smoke-house. If I am wanting anything, I take it when she sends me for soap or candles. But do you take nothing; you do not know how. If I catch you taking a single thing, this is what you will get, and more too.' 1

“ These were the only indiscretions which I can recollect of my boyhood. I never took anything again from my master and mistress, — at least, this mistress.

“ I will therefore pass on to the period of my mistress’s illness and death. At that time I was the acknowledged favorite, next to my mother and grandmother, of all the family.

“ My mistress had consumption, and she was therefore ill for a long time. My grandmother and mother, my master and myself, used to take it by turns to sit up with her. My post was in the dining-room, which was next to, and opened into, her room. If she wanted anything, she rang a small bell, placed on a table by her. She was too weak to speak aloud. I used to doze, but never went fast to sleep, while sitting up with her. I always heard the bell, and was instantly at her side. If she desired food or cordial, I raised her on the pillows, and fed her as tenderly as my master could have done.2 If she wanted my mother, — she slept in the hall during all my mistress’s illness, and I summoned her. If the summer’s night was warm, I set open all the blinds and doors. Many a night I have sat by her and fanned her until sunrise. My master used to sleep on a lounge in the dressing-room. My movements never disturbed her or woke him.

“ Her own children were young and thoughtless, and she seemed to prefer my services to theirs.

“ At length she died, and, sorry as I was, I was proud to see the long train of carriages which attended her funeral.

I walked by the hearse in a suit of black. My young mistress tied crape around my hat herself, saying, as she did so, ‘Edmund, I shall never forget you.’ I heard all the company remarking upon the faithfulness of myself and family to my dear mistress ; and I felt, as well I might, that I was now adding to the distinction of my family, and conducting myself as a worthy and excellent member of society.

“ My grandmother had now the management of the family. My young mistress completed one more winter at boarding-school in Charleston after her mother’s death. But when she did come home to manage the house, she found it easier to amuse herself with her young companions, and leave the management of everything to us.

“ Thus matters went on for two years. The whole town of Beaufort talked about the intelligence and faithfulness of our family. My sister had grown up, and had charge of the children and their clothes. Miss Caro had not time to trouble with them. She was much admired at all the balls and parties, and often made trips to Charleston with her young friends. The only complaint which any of us made was that of my sister Kate, when Miss Caro would not leave her time to make the children’s clothes, but kept her making dresses all the spring for herself. Kate was the children’s best friend. She could not bear to see them running about the quarter on Sunday, and kept out of their pa’s sight because their clothes were not made for them to go to church or come to the table. And one day, instead of telling master that the boys were gone hunting, as Miss Caro had ordered her, she told him that their clothes were not in order for them to come to the table.

“‘And why are they not in order, when you have nothing else to do ? ’ roared my master. This put him in a passion.

“ But Kate was not afraid of master himself when her blood was up, and she answered right off,—

“‘Because Miss Caro keeps me working all the time for her, and won’t leave me time to do the children’s clothes.’

“‘Let me see what you have been doing,’ said master, and he walked right into Miss Caro’s room, where Kate always sat. Miss Caro had that very morning gone to Charleston, which made Kate the bolder, for Miss Caro did not mind telling a story when she got ready.

“She showed master a whole piece of long-cloth, and another of cambric, which last Miss Caro had ordered her to make up into tucked and pointed skirts by the time she got back. ‘And I can’t do it and keep the children decent,— I can’t!’ said Kate, ‘and I told her so, and she told me to let the children run until they were done ; and I just tell you, sir, everybody says I do as if I was white by those children, and Miss Caro won’t let me do for them, sir ! ’

“ Here Kate began to cry. She always cried when she was in a passion, and I walked in. ‘Master,’ I said, ‘you know Kate would work her fingers to the bone to see the children brought up genteel and becoming to the family ; but please, sir, not to let Miss Caro know that she has told you.’

“ ‘ I will not,’ he said ; ‘ Kate, you are perfectly right to tell me, and I will not. But go, Edmund, and bring the children to me just as they are, — go, and bring them.'

“ I was getting ashamed of the way the children were sometimes seen, and I did so. Such sights as they were ! It was then June, and they were wearing winter clothes, and they had not cared how they did them. No summer clothing was in a fit condition to be put on. He hollered till he brought the whole house around him. He told Kate to bring the cloth he had bought them, which she did. Two whole pieces were there, waiting to be made up. Three more women besides my mother had come to see what was the matter. He ordered them all to sit down, and not get up until the children had clothes to put on.

“Kate was ready to cry again, finding herself blamed as well as the rest. Seeing that, he gave her a gold piece, and told her to cut out. The longcloth he ordered made into shirts, and the cambric he locked up.

“But we all had reason to rue the day when master found out how Miss Caro did by the children. That very evening he called me to black his boots and help him dress. I never saw master take so much pains with his dress before ; and out he went. Grandmother told me to watch where he went; and where should it be but to see a young lady. And, more than all, she was a Northern young lady, and had about her all the mean ways of those Northern people. Not but that she was clever in some things too, but I did delight to get ahead of her.

“The upshot of it all was that in three months from that time we had a new mistress; her name was Miss Lucy Dearing. She was just from school, and knew nothing out of her books. She was spending that year in Beaufort. When we found out that master was going to see her, grandmother sent me to go and sit in the kitchen, and find out all about her. The cook told me she would not give us trouble; that she sat in her room and sewed muslin, and read her books, and did not know what biscuits were made of. So this made us better satisfied. We said if master had taken marrying into his head, he would be certain to marry somebody, and we would rather him marry a young girl who would not interfere with us.

“But, when Miss Caro heard it, she was just raging. She never had been to mistress’s grave since the summer she died. But now she was dressing up the children, and taking them to the grave, and covering it with flowers, all in sight of the congregation every Sunday ; and she had me there to wash off the tombstone, and to plant vines and all manner of flowers around it. And she kept telling the children that now they would be beat, and sent away, and that their pa would not care for them or her any longer, and that their mother was forgotten ; and when any company talked to her about it she began to cry.

“At last grandmother thought that Miss Caro was overdoing the matter; she told her that master would marry again, and she did not think he could do better. There was a certain handsome widow in Beaufort that we had always been afraid of; and we knew that, if master married her, she would know about everything. So we had a great deal rather have the young lady, and we told her so.

“ When Miss Caro heard that, she agreed to it, and she went to see Miss Dearing; but the boys could not be got to go near her. They had got it in their heads that she would make their pa whip them, and so they said they hated her, and would not go to see her.

“Master told as that Miss Lucy had been brought up at a boarding-school, and had never had a home, and she thought now she would have a home, and would find a sister and brothers in his children ; and that she did not know how to keep house, and did not wish to take charge of anything excepting to teach the children.

“Miss Caro told us this was her mean Yankee blood, that was made for teachers, and was fit for nothing else.

“ At last the wedding-day came round. The first thing she asked master was that we should all come to the wedding, and so we did. It was in the morning in the parlor, and we crowded all the doors and windows. She did look pretty and innocent, and I did not blame master so much. I felt sorry for her, for I knew Miss Caro would worry her life out of her.

“ She came home the next day, and Miss Caro offered her the head of the table and the keys ; but she took the seat next to master, and said that she would rather have her keep on, as she had been, for that she did not know how to keep house.

“If she had only kept to that, we would all have worshipped her.

“ The boys would not come to the table or go near her for some days ; but they would stand behind the door and watch her. At last she spied them, and ran into the pantry and caught them. One she drew on her lap, and she put her arm round the other and kissed them.

“ In two minutes they went back to the parlor with her ; and after that they followed her everywhere, and never wanted to be parted from her anymore.

“ About three months after she was married I fell in love myself, and then I did not blame master at all. When I first saw my dear Sally, she was as pretty a girl as ever was. Her hair was beautifully curled and plaited into puffs, her brown cheeks were fat and round, her eyes black and shining, her feet and hands pretty as any lady’s. She was brought up in the house, like myself, and belonged to a superior and ancient family. Therefore my family made no objection ; but she lived five miles off, and I was afraid master would object because he would not want to spare me.

“ My grandmother opened the subject to him, and he said, as I expected, (I was listening under the window,) ‘Tut, tut! I cannot spare Edmund to be always running away so far. I want him right here. I cannot do without him.’

“ My grandmother was coming away, she knew that master would come round after a while, but Miss Lucy said, ‘Mr. Harrington, I don’t think it is right to look at our convenience only in this matter. They have the same feelings as ourselves. How would you like to have been prevented from marrying me ? ’

“Master always did whatever Miss Lucy said. ‘ Tell him to go along and get married,’ he called after my grandmother. I heard under the window. I knew all was settled.

“The Sunday after the wedding I brought Sally to see the family. Miss Lucy gave her a dress, Miss Caro a bonnet, and we had a grand dinner in the kitchen ; and master allowed me to drive her home in his buggy, which especially pleased me, because I wanted Sally to see into what a high family she had married, and the consideration in which I was held by all my owners.

“Soon after this Miss Caro went to Charleston again, and, when she went, Miss Lucy took the keys. The first morning that she went to give out breakfast she followed Maum Dinah into a pantry where the flour was kept, then to the smoke-house ; then to the store-room, where were rice, flour, meal, &c.; finally to a closet where sugar, coffee, pickles, spices, &c. were. When Miss Lucy was done giving out, she called me, and told me to call another man to help.

“ I thought what was coming, but I could not openly disobey. In the room where flour was kept, the window was fastened only with a rail leaning against it. The light wood and soap were kept in the smoke-house, as well as the meat, which of course gave us constant access to it. This Miss Lucy saw. It was master’s wish. He was satisfied, and that gave us a right to the things. But her mean notions did not agree to this. She made me move the flour into the store-room, and the light wood into the woodshed, which deprived us of our excuse to be constantly in the smokehouse. These things had always been our right. Master could not but know it, and he had always allowed it; the things were his, and not hers. My first mistress had never come looking and looking to see what we took, and I was not going to stand it now.

“ I could not help moving the things, but I was determined to be even with her. When she came in, grandmother showed her a nail by the closet door. ‘This is where the keys always hang,’ said she.

“Miss Lucy coolly put all the keys into her work-box, and locked it.”

“ Miss Lucy then undertook to look over the boys’ clothes. She observed in a moment what Miss Caro and master had never found out. There were no last summer, or last winter, or outgrown clothes on hand. Kate had talked about these things being gone several times. She really was so attached to the children, and so anxious to see them look well, that she was glad to see Miss Lucy take account of their clothes. She helped her, and showed her everything, and where all was kept.

“ But what I hated was to see her take out a little paper book, and set down all the articles and the numbers of each.

“ I thought we still had means of getting ahead of her, for she did not know how much rice, flour, sugar, or anything else to give out. I had noticed in the morning that she let Maum Dinah take just what she said was usual of everything.

“But that evening she took the boys with her, and went to see some one. In the morning she appeared with a list set down on paper of everything to be given out. The quantity of rice, bacon, flour, &c.

“ In a day or two more she had measures and weights. Then she took to counting out the clothes for the wash, which no real lady would have thought of.

“ Of course we could not appear to care for all this, and we could do nothing until Miss Caro came back. We thought that she would have the keys again, for she was the oldest of the two.

“At length Miss Caro did come. The next morning, after breakfast, Miss Lucy handed her the keys, but master said that he wished Miss Lucy to keep them. ‘Your management, my dear,’ he said, ‘is so much the best, and the expense so much less, that I must beg of you to continue.’

“‘Then, dear Caro,’ said Miss Lucy, ‘we will divide the labor between us. If you please you shall keep Kate under your direction, and the children’s clothes, and I will do the housekeeping.’

“ Miss Caro never forgave Miss Lucy for this. But I will not dwell upon these affairs; it is my own life that I am telling.

“Matters went on thus for a year. As grandmother had always been looked upon as the head of our family, and a person of the highest character and standing, she could not bear to be thus imposed upon by Miss Lucy, who might have been her grandchild in years.

“As for me, I had by that time forgiven her, and begun to feel reconciled. Master was much in debt, and Miss Lucy saved so much money that he was paying off fast. We had seen, some ten years before this, twenty of our fellow-servants sold off to pay debts. It was a dreadful day that saw them go. But debt did it, and master could not help it. We knew that Miss Lucy was the means of paying master’s debts. I considered that some of us would have to go for them if they were not paid.

“ But grandmother always boasted that she had Indian blood in her veins, and she was determined to be revenged. I always told grandmother never to do anything to Miss Lucy, and I had nothing to do with what she did. I had a young sister by the name of Elsie, about fifteen years old ; she was Miss Lucy’s special favorite ; she loaded her with presents, and really, I believe, loved her dearly. Grandmother did not let Elsie know that she had any spite against Miss Lucy.

“One morning Miss Lucy was sick; she did not get up nor have her breakfast until eleven o’clock. Then fresh tea was to be made for her. Elsie had helped her to dress, and came to arrange the table for her, and to wait upon her. I was away that morning; grandmother knew I would not have let her do it had I been there, nor would Maum Dinah ; but Miss Lucy, taking her breakfast after eleven o’clock, she had gone to get vegetables. I was gone for beef, and no one was about but Elsie and grandmother. When Elsie gave her the tea to make, she put something in it. I don’t know what it was.

“ When Miss Lucy poured out her tea, it tasted to her badly. She put more milk and sugar in it; still it tasted so badly that a suspicion came into her mind. She heard grandmother’s voice in the pantry. She said to Elsie, ‘You can have this cup of tea, I will make another.’ Elsie took the tea into the pantry, and Miss Lucy was listening ; there was only a screen between. When grandmother saw Elsie going to drink it, she forgot herself, dashed it from her hand, and broke cup and saucer on the floor. Of course Miss Lucy heard this ; she knew that grandmother would not let Elsie drink it if anything was in it.

“ But she kept cool. She said nothing, but gave Elsie another teapot, and made her heat water, and make more tea in her sight. This she drank, for she was sick and faint already; but she locked up the teapot, and went on to the store-room as usual. Then grandmother knew what was before her if that tea was shown to any doctor. While Miss Lucy was at the storeroom, she opened the door with a chisel, threw out the tea, and put the fresh leaves and tea, which Miss Lucy had left, into it. But the teapot was turned black inside. Miss Lucy knew how it was, but grandmother had got ahead of her. She could show no proof against her.

“ But she was ordered by master to go to her house, and never to set her foot in his yard again. And thus grandmother was disgraced on account of Miss Lucy; for, if it had not been for her, no difficulty would have ever happened. This affair was never known off of the plantation. I heard Miss Lucy say to master, I cannot take away her character without proof; the closet door was open when I came in, but suppose the possibility that I had left it open. It is enough that you forbid her the yard.’

“The next December we were living as usual on the plantation. Master used to give frequent dinner-parties, and I used to hear the gentlemen drinking toasts over their wine to the Lone Star, and making a fuss about the North. But I had heard a fuss about the North ever since I could remember, and I thought it was no more than usual.

“ But one day I drove the carriage into Beaufort. There was a great fuss. All the bells were ringing, and all the men and boys shouting. Miss Lucy asked what was the matter. ' The State has seceded,’ somebody said.

“Now the white people did not think we knew, but we knew very well, that the quarrel was about us. We knew that the Northern men were trying to set us free, and the South would not let us go. White men,sometimes blacked as negroes, had been among us, over and over, to try and set us against our owners. But in Beaufort most all of us were members of the Baptist Church, and we knew very well it was not right to murder our masters. Besides, we knew what the white men were when they got in a passion. They were very good-natured till you made them vexed. I had rather have seen the Devil than my master in a passion and me rebelling against him. I ’d have fallen on my knees, I know, the minute he ordered me. And I do love my master, and Miss Caro, and the children. I would rather have worked for them all my days than seen them have to work.

“But, though we could do nothing (I am truly glad that we never raised our hands against those who had fed and provided for us, and cared for us in sickness ever since we were born), it has pleased Providence to set us all free.

“ The next thing was building forts at Hilton Head and Bay Point. And O, how the white gentlemen bragged, over their wine, that no Yankee ships could enter between the batteries !

“ Colonel—came to Beaufort to see the batteries, and he kept drinking toasts to South Carolina, and declaring how splendid the batteries were, and how much the Beaufort gentlemen knew about fortifications and war.

“ There was one gentleman there that they called a West-Pointer, —what that was I can’t tell, but he looked just like the other men, for all the world. He talked bigger than all, and he took all the hands, and was the head man in building the forts. One day a little ship belonging to us brought into the harbor a big ship belonging to the Yankees.

“ I have heard that there is a country somewhere t’ other side of the earth,— under this country, I suppose, — and, though they live underneath other people, the people there think that they are celestial people, — which means heavenly people, — and that other people are only put on top of the earth to shade them from the sun. And they think that they stand still, and the sun, the earth, and the moon go round them. And the Beaufort people thought just so. But, as I take it, the whole earth stands still, and the sun and moon go round it. It is not only Beaufort that stands still, but the whole earth. I know this because it is against common sense to suppose that grass and trees and cotton could grow if the ground moved. I have heard people say different, but I had the natural sense to know better.

“ And the Beaufort people did not go anywhere else much. I have heard them say often that there was not such a place from Canada to Mexico as Beaufort. But I had been to Philadelphia with master when I was a boy, and I had been to Charleston, and I knew that other people lived just as they did, except that they did not drink so much wine nor so many toasts after dinner. The drinking toasts did not help South Carolina one bit, though they drank them to help her. Colonel—, he drank so many that when he went to the forts he thought them pretty hard to get up, and he thought the Yankees would find it pretty hard too.

“ All were sure and certain that no enemy could get into Beaufort harbor. But law ! when the Yanks got ready, they came right in. One day the enemy were reported in sight; the WestPointer (whatever that may be, he only looked like a fat, big, middle-aged man) sent word to the town of Beaufort for nobody to be scared.

“ But the next morning the ships took the middle passage, knocked the forts to pieces, and sailed past them quite fair and easy. Then the men landed all in blue, with a large flag flying, and headed by three or four more West-Pointers, who were little slim men, with little waists, and red sashes to show how little they were, —the slimmest waist ones were the highest officers,— they scrambled over the ditches and embankments. Our men cut across through the mud, and over the marsh to Ladies’ Island, so fast that it ’most made them think that the Yanks were men as well as themselves.

“ But this was nothing to the town of Beaufort when the news came. The old ladies lifted up their hands, and said that Satan was let loose, and these were the evil days.

“ Wagons, carriages, carts, and everything else were got ready ; everything was loaded with people, sick and well; they all went, only one white man remained in the town. Many of the house-servants went with their masters. Among these was Elsie and me, and Sally, who was staying in the town at the time.

“ I always treated Sally’s family (owners) with the greatest possible politeness and consideration. Master was a perfect gentleman in his manners, and I had the advantage of seeing the best society always before me, and I had learned to model my behavior accordingly.

“ The shell road from Beaufort to Port Royal Ferry was crowded with carriages, wagons, foot-passengers and even wheelbarrows, all fleeing into the interior. We had a carriage, a buggy, and two wagons. Mrs. Brocktin (Sally’s mistress) and her family travelled in company with us ; she had a carriage and wagon. Mrs. Brocktin had no son, but only daughters. I therefore begged my master to excuse me as much as possible, that I might help her at all the stopping-places. In crossing the ferry, the road was blocked up by the wagons and carriages in waiting.

“ Many passed the night on both sides of the ferry. We found shelter with a friend of master’s on the main for that night. Miss Caro wished to go on to Charleston, and master therefore went on there. Master had relations there to stop with until he could rent a house. Fortunately we had some bales of Sea Island cotton at our factor’s. We experienced no want of money, and I soon found myself quite at home ; though master moaned dismally about his plantation and house that he was obliged to leave.

“ Master sent me back to Beaufort at one time to see what they were all doing there. The field-negroes had come into the town, and overrun it. They were living in all their masters’ houses, sleeping in piles on the carpets and beds, and, too lazy to go and cut wood, they were splitting up the garden fences and even chairs to make fires. The little ones were running over the streets, blowing the pipes broken cut of the church organ.

“ I went into our parlors. Six fieldniggers were asleep on the carpet, in broad daylight. Grandmother sat in the rocking-chair smoking; some strange woman was drumming on the piano. ‘Grandmother,’ I said, ‘are you having all this done ? ’

“‘No,’ she said; ‘Edmund, I am keeping them from burning master’s house. I did not care how much they took Miss Lucy’s things, but I won’t let them burn master’s house.’

“ I was not so much surprised at this behavior of the field-negroes, but I saw a white mail with them, whom I had always taken to be a gentleman, and I was astonished at him. He had a queer name, which I have forgotten ; he had been spying out every creek and inlet along the coast for some time. He had been received by all the planters along the coast with unbounded hospitality. I had often seen him dining at master’s table, and master used to leave orders that whenever Mr.—’s (why can I not call his name ?) vessel came off the place, or he came ashore, should be supplied with whatever the plantation afforded, — fresh beef, mutton, poultry, butter, eggs, not even forgetting to leave out wine and cigars for his use. Other Beaufort planters had treated him in the same manner. He had now joined the soldiers in Beaufort, and was showing them all the different plantations, and telling them who had the best wine, horses, stock, and everything else.

“ I have a brown skin, to be sure, and I never thought it harm to lift a little, if master had plenty; but I could not have found it in my heart to carry and show the Yankees the very places where I had been entertained and treated kindly, and never allowed to be at any expense. He showed them master’s plantation, his cellar, his horses and mules, cattle and sheep. They took possession there, and after a while the house was burned, and all the standing furniture, pictures, &c., and everything which had not been taken away, was burned too. But this was not until some time afterwards.

“ I came back to Charleston, and told master all that they were doing. The people in Charleston had already got the news of all this foreign man’s doings, and it made a great talk there.

“ All this time a young man of Charleston was visiting Miss Caro. He was a very clever young man too, but he was not of a noble and ancient family like ours.3 I heard him telling Miss Caro one day that Miss Lucy looked so good, and that the children were so fond of her. Miss Caro told him that Miss Lucy just talked so before him for deceitfulness. She made him think that Miss Lucy was really very bad to her, and she pretended to hurry her marriage on that account. She said master had married to please himself, and she should do the same. Master was so worn out with Miss Caro’s complaints against Miss Lucy, and the jealousies between them, and losing his property and all, that he did not have any heart left to contend with any of them. So Miss Caro just did as she pleased.

“But, as it turned out, Mr. Baron really is a very clever gentleman. He belonged to the company of those that ran the blockade, and made a great deal of money. My sister Kate went with Miss Caro when she married, but Elsie and I stayed with Miss Lucy.

“ Soon after the fire in Charleston (I was in Beaufort at that time), master found rent and living so high that he removed to the upper part of the State. Miss Caro wrote that old Mrs. Brocktin was dead, and that there was to be a sale and division of all her property. This included Sally too, and our two little children, — for we had two by this time. A few days afterwards I came to ask master to let me go to Charleston to see her, and to see what I could do for her. Master allowed me to go, and also trusted me with an order to his old factor to sell his carriage and horses, wagons, and mules, all which he had left with Mr. Baron when he came to the up-country. I was to bring him back the money, and return after a fortnight’s stay. Before I went, I had a conversation with master and Miss Lucy about buying Sally. Master was willing to buy in her and the children, on a credit, and Miss Lucy was willing too. I must say that this was clever of Miss Lucy; for she saw so plainly that I disliked her, and was unwilling to serve her, that for a long time past she had been content that I should wait on master; she never required anything of me herself. Yet, when Sally was to be sold, she seemed to feel a great deal for me, and was quite willing that master should buy her in. But I told master that I did not care about his buying her, that I thought Sally wanted to go to her own young mistress. I said this out of politeness, but my real reason was that I did not want Sally to belong to a lady who was so mean, and who locked up everything and took account of everything as Miss Lucy did. We felt mean to come to ask for everything, and we did not like to do it.

“ When I got to Charleston, I went first to see Sally; she was very much grieved for her old mistress, but so glad to see me that she nearly got over it. She said that her young mistress would buy her in, as I expected. I then went to see Miss Caro, and told her that master wished the things sold which he had left with Mr. Baron. Miss Caro was using the carriage, and she said that master had not given her any other property, and that they were little enough for her to have. Mr. Baron said he felt grieved about master, and that he might be in much need. I told him that master was then without any other means of getting food except by the sale of these articles. Mr. Baron said that they should be immediately sold; but Miss Caro so worked around him, in the course of a week, as to persuade him that this call came from Miss Lucy’s influence, who was only jealous of her retaining any part of her father’s property, and only wanted to deprive her of it.

“ I was waiting on the supper-table one evening, and heard them talking over the matter, and agreeing that Miss Lucy did not choose to let master part with any property but what was to be taken from Miss Caro, I was so bold as to put in and assure them that master was really in need, and could not get sale, in the up-country, for the few articles of value which remained to him.

“ ' I see that Lucy has won you over, and set you against me, as she did my father and the children,’ said Miss Caro.

“ 'I do not like Miss Lucy any more than you do, Miss Caro,’ said I ; ' but my dear master is anxious and suffering.’

“ ' How, then, did he offer to buy in Sally and your children ? You don’t make me believe any such thing ! ’ said Miss Caro.

“ ' Master was to get them on credit,’ I answered ; ‘but I let Miss Lucy know that I did not wish them under her.’

“ Miss Caro said no more then ; but she kept me driving her out in the carriage, and I saw that she did not mean to give it up. In the mean time I was afraid master was suffering.

“So one day, after I had set Miss Caro down at her own door, I very coolly drove the carriage and horses to Mr. Brodee, the factor, gave it up to him, and gave him master’s order for the sale of wagons, mules, and all. I did not choose to let him into our family affairs, but I knew, when he presented the order, Miss Caro would be ashamed to make objections, or to refuse to give up the things to him.

“ Mr. Brodee made a fine sale of the carriage and horses, and sent me with a check for gold for master, and a message that he would look out until he could do the same by the other things.

“ When I came back, I found master really in need. He was overjoyed to get the check, and allowed me to return immediately to be with Sally, making me a handsome present besides.

“I cannot say that I felt as our Northern brethren would suppose when I saw Sally and my children put upon the block. I knew already that Mrs. Allenby (Mrs. Brocktin’s daughter) would buy them in, whatever price they went at; and I had rather they should be away from me part of the time during master’s stay in the up-country, than be under so close a mistress as Miss Lucy. Besides, I knew that in the wretched, poor little place where master had gone, and without carriage and horses, I was more expense than use to him ; and I intended to ask Mrs. Allenby to hire me. This arrangement was entered into for a few months ; but, on the reserves being ordered out, master was obliged to go too. So he sent for me to attend him in camp, and I instantly went.

“ I joined my master in a camp near the Georgia line ; here were a few tents, which had been erected to hold campmeetings in. One Sunday evening we heard distant cannonading ; it proved to be the fall of Atlanta. At that very time the reserves of South Carolina and Georgia were in camp. My master prayed and entreated the major to march there, when we heard the cannonading, but he could not move without orders. At length, after the fall of Atlanta, some of the reserves were ordered home again, and some to guard the Yankee prisoners near Columbia. My poor master seemed to forget all his own troubles in his indignation at not being ordered to Georgia ; for we could now hear how General Hood had gone to the West, and Sherman was marching through all the lower part of Georgia.

“ We knew that, if our masters were conquered, we would be likely to be set free ; yet I cannot say that I used to wish the success of the Yankee army. It brought with it ruin and distress to those whom I loved and served ; and though slavery did cause among us the evils of deceit, lying, and stealing, as I feel now (when I am dying), yet it also caused a deep interest and affection for our master’s families, and an unselfish devotion to them, which I fear our children will never know.

“ When we were ordered to guard the prison camp in Columbia, I asked master’s permission to return home for a while. Elsie was going to be married. Her mother had been left in Beaufort with grandmother, and there was no one to act a father’s and mother’s part by her but me. A very respectable colored gentleman, by the name of Richard Williams, had been coming to see her above a year. He did not belong to one of the old families of the State, to be sure, but to the parvenus, as master called them. But his family (owners) were getting rich. I had dreadful misgivings that ours were going down. One reason with me for leaving master in camp for a while was, that I knew Miss Lucy did not feel a proper pride in family distinction. If she only had bread and tea for dinner, she did not mind saying so at all. She had made us all very angry with her more than once, in Beaufort, by saying to company that master was much in debt, and that she was trying to economize.

“ And, now that Elsie was going to be married, I procured a relation of mine to wait on my master in my place until I came back, and I went home to the wedding.

“ The very evening that I got home, Mr. Williams was coming to ask Miss Lucy’s consent to the marriage. She had, in fact, given it already, for she had allowed Elsie every opportunity to walk out with him, and to see him all the time; but it was proper that, in master’s absence, her consent should be asked.

“ Elsie told me that Miss Lucy had not a candle in the house ; that she used light-wood entirely, which the boys picked up. I had one piece of silver in my pocket. I instantly went out and purchased two candles, and sent Elsie to put them in the candlesticks,4 and to see that everything looked nice in the parlor before Richard should arrive.

“ Miss Lucy had been sitting on a low seat, near the chimney-place, all the evening. I think she was crying. She did not seem to think it of any importance how to receive Richard, though she knew that he was coming.

“ We did not know how to manage getting her to dress ; but Elsie at length begged Mass Lawrence to go and tell her that Richard was coming; and the children managed to tell her that we wanted her to put on a silk dress, and some gold rings and brooches, that Richard might not say that his family were superior to ours. She stopped crying when she heard this, and smiled ; and Elsie said, ‘ If you please, ma’am.’

“ ‘ I did not know that it was of any consequence how I looked, Elsie,’ she said; ‘I thought the matter was now how you looked.’

“' Yes, ma’am,’ said Elsie ; ‘Richard thinks already that his master drives a handsome carriage and horses, and that we have none. But master did have everything very handsome.’

“When Miss Lucy came down, I had put cedar in the parlor chimney, and lighted the candles ; I did not like Richard to think that we used lightwood in the parlor.

“When Richard spoke to Miss Lucy, she gave her consent very graciously and kindly, and agreed that the marriage should take place while I was at home.

“ But I could still see about Miss Lucy the same lamentable want of pride and consequence which I had always noticed. To be sure, she took Elsie up stairs to her wardrobe ; and, though she had but few dresses left, she gave her a white and a colored one. She really did spare her what she could; but she seemed to take no manner of interest about the supper. She even said she thought we had better have the wedding in daylight and at church. I had no idea of such a thing, and yet was at my wit’s end to furnish a large supper.

“ I recollected master’s wagon and mules in Charleston, which I had left with the factor to be sold. I thought, too, that Miss Caro might help me a little; and then I remembered that my wages were still due from Mrs. Allenby. So I went to Miss Lucy, and asked her to give me a pass to go to Charleston on the cars ; telling her that I would collect the money for the wagon and mules for her, and admitting that I wished to collect something myself to furnish Elsie’s wedding-supper.

“ Miss Lucy consented, and thanked me for going for her, adding that she was willing to furnish all that she could ; for, through all her troubles, Elsie had been like a dear friend to her.

“ I collected the money for Miss Lucy from Mr. Brodee, and I collected my wages from Mrs. Allenby. I told her that master allowed me the wages to furnish Elsie’s wedding; and so he did, when he knew about it. I got from her —for she lived on a farm above the city — a pair of turkeys, a ham, plenty of lard, flour, and molasses. I took upon myself to ask Mr. Brodee to send some sugar and coffee to Miss Lucy. He did so, and I made sure of enough out of that.

“ Thus we had a splendid supper. I arranged and ordered everything, and did most of the cooking myself; for I knew much more about cakes and pastry than Miss Lucy did.

“ Elsie was married in Miss Lucy’s parlor about nine o’clock. I did not choose to have the hour early like the crackers (poor whites). The white minister and his family were invited to remain to take tea with Miss Lucy. After handing tea, which Richard and I did, we danced in a hall near by until one o’clock. Then the company were asked to supper. We had everything handsome, complete, and served in the nicest manner.

“ But my mind troubled me so much about master, that I determined to go to the depot that very night, and start for Columbia at sunrise. When I reached master, I found that the man whom I had engaged to wait on him in my absence had left him ; so I was glad enough that I had come immediately on. My poor master was trying to cook for himself. I arrived about three o’clock, and William had left the day before, though he promised me not to leave master until I came back. I wasted no time, but rushed to the colonel’s quarters. As I expected, they were at dinner. I told the colonel I wanted a place as waiter. I showed myself so smart that he engaged me on the spot. After dinner, I made friends with the cook, got everything I wanted, and hurried back to master with an elegant plate of hot dinner, and some whiskey and tobacco.

“ I had not said anything to Miss Lucy about my coming away so immediately; and I now felt sorry for this, because she would have sent master some money if she had known it. I found him now without any ; but when I proposed that he should send for some part of the money which Mr. Brodee had sent, he declined, declaring that he would do with his rations, and that he would rather leave that to Miss Lucy and the children.

“ The Yankee prisoners (all officers) were placed within the walls of the lunatic asylum. There was a considerable space enclosed by these walls, and there were many booths and tents erected there for their temporary shelter. The soldiers appointed to guard these prisoners were encamped in canvas tents across the street opposite the asylum. The officers occupied a church on the corner, and the colonel’s quarters were in a handsome house near by.

“ I was successful in ingratiating myself so much with these officers, that I made handsomely by waiting on them. My master received only the rations of a common soldier. One pint of corn meal, with the husk in it, a gill of sorghum, and sometimes a little beef, was all that was served out to him. I used to rise at daylight, prepare his breakfast, and make his fire before the colonel’s breakfast was ready. I had supplied him with everything that he required for the day. I then waited on the officers’ breakfast, and they left everything in my charge. I did not mind taking what I wanted for myself at all; but I thought it might go against my master’s honor and respectability afterwards, that he should share in anything taken. So I asked the colonel, plainly, ' Sir, am I to put up what you leave on the table ? or is it for me ? '

“ ' No,’ said he, ‘my good fellow ; as long as you please us so well, do what you like with it.'

“This suited me exactly; for they lived well, and I was able every day to save abundance for my master out of the dishes which had been cut. I also kept him in tobacco, did his cooking, and found time to do his washing.

“ When his time came to be on guard duty, I offered to take his place. This was not allowed ; but I kept fire for him, and always had something hot for him when he came off. My poor master, who had been delicately brought up, and accustomed to have every luxury and delicacy, without work, used now to stand guard on some nights of rain and cold, — such that, when he came in, his clothes were stiff with ice, and his very hair and beard frozen.

“ Then I had fire made for him, and his other suit of clothes dry and warm. I often carried him, while on guard, a hot toddy. I always had one ready for him early in the morning.

“ But these were not all the resources at my command. The Yankee prisoners were allowed to receive everything sent them by way of Hilton Head. They frequently received boxes of everything good, from their friends at the North, and many of them had plenty of gold too.

“ I will here acknowledge one transaction in which I was engaged without master’s knowledge, and for which he would have blamed me if he had known it.

“ I had access to the prisoners at all times during the day; and they more than once paid me gold and provisions to buy whiskey for them, and smuggle it to them. I could not see any harm in their comforting themselves with it, and the money did me plenty of good.

“ There was one young officer among them, who was frantic to get out of the enclosure. He was quite a young and handsome man, and he wore a seal ring, with the likeness of a young lady in it. I suspected that this young fellow was engaged to some beautiful lady, and that this was the reason he was so anxious to get away. He constantly gave me money as I was passing in and out.

“ At length he begged me to slip into his tent one night, and see him, and I agreed to do so. My master was on guard that night, and he always thought that what I was about must be all right. I brought him some hot toddy and a cracker, and, as I expected, he took no notice in what direction I disappeared. When his back was turned the farthest, I seized upon a rope lowered over the wall, and, being very light and active, I quickly landed inside of the prison bounds. Captain—was on the other side. We stooped down, under the shadow of the wall, and he showed me five gold-pieces. I followed him to his tent, and there he showed me five more, and a large box of clothing and provisions, which had just arrived a few days before. ‘All these,’ said he, 'are yours, Edmund, if you will get me out of this place.'

“‘I am afraid,’I replied, ‘it will get my master into trouble.’

“ ' No,’he said ; ‘ he will know nothing of it, and can never be suspected.

“ At length he persuaded me that it could not be laid on master, and then I was more ready to enter into his schemes.

“ I was cunning enough to see (which he did not) that, if I was seen with his clothing, I would be suspected of having helped him to get away. He was to sell his clothing and provisions himself. I would be seen to have nothing to do with him. He was to pay me the ten gold-pieces, and what the clothing brought. I was to take the place of one of the guard, some dark, rainy night, and let him pass. I also put him up to not showing any gold to the country people above Columbia, but to get enough Confederate money to take him along. I advised him to pretend he was a Confederate soldier making his way through the country to Virginia, not to show much money, to wear an old uniform of master’s, and appear very poor.

“ Now, I must say for myself that I was as much trusted in camp as any white man there. The command was made up of old men and boys from the up-country. The boys were as simple as if they had on their first frocks ; no matter what I told them, they believed every word of it. I used to tell them, that my master had been the king of the largest sea island south of Beaufort, and also that he was a judge down there, — how he sat in a pulpit in the court-room, and had a long switch in his hand to touch up the lawyers when they did not plead right.

“ This and much more I used to tell them, just to see them open their eyes and mouths, and say 'I wonder.’

“ For about a fortnight I was watching my opportunity, and at length it occurred.

“ These poor boys, often without overcoat or blanket, sometimes with broken shoes, and no clothing to change, living on a pint of meal a day, used to suffer ; the prisoners inside were far better off, and were not exposed to the weather.

“ I was waiting until the turn of one more calfish and stupid than the rest came to stand guard. At the very time two of these poor children had died, and three more were sick. I brought a message to this fellow (David Green), that a boy in the hospital who was dying wanted to see him. He was dreadfully distressed, but no way occurred to him of leaving his post.

“ ‘ Mass Da,’ I said, ‘ I will watch here till you come back.’

“ ‘ You won’t go to sleep, Edmund,’ he said. This was the only danger he seemed to think of.

“ ‘ O no,’ I said, 'Mass Da. I not sleepy at all; I have just carried master some hot whiskey toddy, and had some myself.’

“ He got down and I got up ; there were at intervals high scaffoldings, against the brick walls, which enabled the sentinels to overlook the prison encampments within. I took his place. The young captain was not far off, and, when I whistled a tune agreed upon, he appeared ; with the help of a rope he was soon on the scaffolding by my side, and in less than two minutes he was out of sight in the darkness and rain.

“ Back came Mass David Green in ten minutes, but that time had been quite enough.

“ My own idea is that the Yankees ought to pension very handsomely some of the very Southerners whom they are most set against, — some of the commissaries who drank and gambled away the provisions, clothing, and shoes of the private soldiers. I do not speak of any particular part of the army now. I have a cousin and an uncle both who served their two young masters, through all the campaigns in Virginia, from the first battle of Manassas until, having buried one at Seven Pines, and the other having lost a leg, they conducted and assisted him home, shortly before the surrender, and received for their reward a house and land.

“ Those, too, who ran the blockade, — who made the Confederate money worthless but they? Who raised the price of everything until the soldiers’ money was worthless but they ? Were they not armies of men who stayed at home and speculated ? They have now everything about them that they ever had, while my poor master never received anything but his pint of meal and a little beef. Uncle Gabe and I have talked it over many a night. It pleased Providence to make everything go against them at the last, and to set us free.

“ Yet how was my poor master to blame ? I am thankful that slavery is now over forever. I have heard him and Miss Lucy say so too. I heard master say that he is thankful that his children will never be exposed to the temptations of so many being dependent upon the will of one. I am thankful that the children whom I leave will be educated, and will never be obliged and brought up to steal and lie.

“ Sometimes it looks to me thus. Sometimes I wish that I had never touched anything belonging to another. And then again it seems to me that we had a right, that what our masters had was in a manner ours.

“ But, I say again, how was it master’s fault ? He was brought up among his slaves. He got them from his father. He was always kind and generous to us all, and it grieves me now that in his old age I can never work for him any more.

“ At length came the news that Sherman was marching upon Columbia. The moment that this news came the Yankee officers were ordered to be put on board the cars, and hurried away to North Carolina. In the hurry and confusion five officers got out, and were retaken. Miss Lucy had at that very time come to Columbia, and brought the boys with her to see master, and to comfort him for a while ; for master loved her, and was always happy and cheerful if she were near him. She was staying with a relation of master’s in town a little way off, when these officers were brought back. It was a sort of mob that had them, — three or four deserters that were always about some mischief, five or six low-down men from the mountains. I don’t know who the rest were, but I understood from their talk that they intended to make short work with these prisoners. I was sorry for them, for I had eaten their bread many a time.

“Everything was in the wildest confusion. There was no officer on the spot, and I was at a loss what to do.

“The poor fellows did not seem to apprehend any danger. They thought they would lounge about in their old quarters until Sherman came in, and then join him. But the approach of Sherman made the Confederates raging, and they talked murder.

“ I was sitting down against the asylum wall listening to them, when who should I see but Miss Lucy. I could hardly believe my eyes, but it was her, and Mass Lawrence with her. Her face was very pale, but she looked prettier than ever. She walked up to these rough men. I, who knew her face, could tell that she was frightened, but they could not.

“ ‘ I have a cousin here, a prisoner,’ she said ; ‘ I am anxious to see him.'

“Not a man objected. They even opened the asylum gate, and allowed her to walk in. Mass Lawrence went with her, and I followed. The prisoners were smoking and playing cards, quite unconcerned.

“ She walked up to one of them, and said a few words in some language (I suppose French) which I did not understand. The man could not understand her, but he called the others. She spoke the same language again, and one of them answered. A few words more passed, which only she and him could understand. But I looked at the one who understood her. His countenance changed so much that I knew what she had been telling him. They all knew me well. I was afraid to speak out, lest the guards at the gates should hear me, but I nodded and confirmed her words.

“ In a few minutes she took leave, the one who understood French accompanying her to the gate.

“‘May my cousin come and spend the day with me ?' she said to the guard. I spoke up, telling the guard that this lady was my master’s wife, and Mass Lawrence his son. They all knew my master, and did not refuse her.

“ ‘Mr. Harrington and I will see him safe back this evening,’said Miss Lucy, smiling, and placing her arm within that of the prisoner.

“These men looked as if they had seen an angel; not one could refuse her.

“ She took his arm, and I followed. I thought I was some protection to her, and she was my master’s wife.

“ They walked two squares, speaking in French, and met my master. ‘ Good heavens, Lucy !' he said.

“ Miss Lucy introduced the gentleman as her cousin, and then whispered to my master, ‘ I was afraid you would not let me,’was all I could hear. Master turned back, and, before long, here came the rest of them with him.

“Mass Lawrence fell back with me, and I heard from him, that one of the boys from the up-country, who was ac quainted with Miss Lucy, had run to tell her, that the deserters were going to murder some escaped prisoners.

“ My master was only a private soldier, but they understood that he was a person of consideration and consequence for all that ; and therefore, when he ordered them to give him up charge of the prisoners, they supposed him sent by the officers, and made no resistance.

“ Master kept these men in a little shed-room in the house where he and Miss Lucy were staying, until Sherman’s army entered.

“They fully understood that they owed their lives to him and Miss Lucy , and they in turn protected the house, their friends, and all their property during Sherman’s stay.

“The one who spoke French went to Sherman, immediately on his entrance, and procured a guard for the house and property.

“ They pressed master and Miss Lucy to go North with them, assuring them that their conduct would insure them a welcome ; but master said he could never desert South Carolina when she was unfortunate ; that he was born in South Carolina, as were his ancestors before him ; and that he would abide by her fortunes, and die here too.

“ My master and Miss Lucy returned to the up-country after the surrender. When I came with them, I was hale and hearty. When freedom came, I asked master’s permission to go down the country for Sally and the children. I too could not bear to desert my master when he was unfortunate, and to take that hour to turn against him.

“ ‘You are as free as I am, Edmund,’ my master replied.

“ ‘ No, master,’ I said ; ‘ you brought me up and supported me; I have now my wife and children to care for, and I cannot work all the time for you as formerly ; but I wish to keep near you, and do everything I can to help you.

“ I went down for them, and brought them. I felt well when I did so, but consumption had even then set in. Very soon I became unable to work, and my master has had to divide with me the little that remained to him.

“After the peace, I received some help from Beaufort; and, Sally being able to work and make wages, I have been so far supplied.

“ I know that it is impossible for me to live long. Master and Mass Lawrence have promised me never to forsake Sally and the children; and a young lady in the neighborhood (Miss Violet) has been good enough to write down this account, to be kept for my children.”

  1. It was a universally received maxim among the negroes, that they had a right to steal from their owners if they had plenty. On the other hand, that they should help them if they needed help.
  2. Fact.
  3. The negroes always called everything belonging to their master theirs. For instance, it would be our parlor, our piano, our carriage, and our young ladies^ our ancient family, and our estate.
  4. Fact.