Men who were administered testosterone lied less, even when no one was watching.
PROBLEM: The association between testosterone and aggression isn't as simple as many are lead to believe. Game theory experiments have suggested that testosterone actually causes people to be more "prosocial" (meaning that they voluntarily act in the interest of helping others), but the exact relationship between the hormone and behavior is unclear.
Does testosterone directly cause people to act in the interest of others? Or does it just make them more concerned about their social status, thus making them appear to be acting in the interest of others while really working to improve their image? Alternatively, does testosterone simply affect their beliefs about other players in the game, which then causes them to alter their behavior?
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METHODOLOGY: Forty-six men had a testosterone-containing gel applied to their skin, and 45 others received a placebo. The next day, after the hormone had been given time to sink in, they participated in an experiment where they repeatedly rolled a die and were paid according to how high they scored.