Then there's shared decision making, which helps patients be better informed about their treatment choices and make better decisions -- and might be the most promising of the bunch in terms of improving care and reducing spending.
Shared decision making is a way of dealing with the tough questions posed by "preference-sensitive conditions" -- conditions where there are multiple treatment options, and none of those options is clearly better than the others. That includes conditions like arthritis in knees and hips, low back pain, stable angina (chest pain from heart disease), and early-stage prostate and breast cancer. (Obviously, it doesn't include emergency conditions like heart attacks and hip fractures, or conditions where there is clearly only one treatment.)
Deciding on a treatment for preference-sensitive conditions involves weighing a variety of risks and possible benefits, and different patients will end up making different "right" decisions because they have different values and preferences. The best example here is women with early-stage breast cancer. They can choose lumpectomy (surgery that preserves the breast) or mastectomy (which removes it entirely). The two options are equally good in terms of reducing the risk of dying of breast cancer, but they require different kinds of follow-up and different women prefer one over the other.
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Making such decisions means that patients must have the relevant information about all their treatment options, and doctors must understand their individual patients' preferences -- basically, what they want from treatment. But too often, patients only hear about one treatment option, the one the doctor usually uses -- and doctors routinely assume they know what their patients want without actually asking them. And in many cases, the doctor is wrong.
This habit of assuming the doctor knows best has created a system where huge numbers of patients aren't getting the treatment they would have chosen if they were fully informed. It also means that hundreds of thousands of patients are going through surgery that wasn't really worth it, and that they wouldn't have chosen had they understood their options.
Shared decision making is a process designed to ensure that patients are fully informed, and then use that information to get the treatment they want. A common though non-essential part of informing patients is a "patient decision aid." Decision aids can be videos, websites, or pamphlets, and they present the available medical evidence on all reasonable treatment options -- including the option to do nothing -- in a way that patients can understand. Decision aids also help patients understand what they value and how much risk they're willing to accept. Doctors can participate in the process, too, by clarifying things for the patient and helping make sure there's a good match between the treatment and what the patient wants.