The proposed quarry is the most significant challenge yet faced by the Canadian local food movement. Over the last ten years, locavore momentum has been growing in the country, with more and more people getting involved, from chefs to farmers to policymakers to educators to regular folk. But this social movement has been better known for its farmers' markets and snout-to-tail dining, than for political action. Now, the fight to stop plans to dig up good farmland and disturb watersheds will test the mettle of the movement and the outcome will set the tone for the protection of agricultural land here in Canada.
"If they succeed, it will push legislation, it will push policy," said Lauren Baker, the coordinator of the Toronto Food Policy Council whose goals includes fostering regional food self-reliance. "But if this quarry goes ahead, I think the message will be that profit and development trump what a community wants, that profit and development trump farmland and the environment."
For the last few decades, the area in Melancthon County that is now the subject of controversy was made up of family farms. It's potato land, and good for Brussels sprouts too. "This is some of the most productive and valuable farmland in the world," said Brent Preston, a local organic farmer who sits on the Clearview council, in the township next door. "There are almost no rocks in it at all and it's a beautiful light, sandy loam. It's the primo primo stuff."
But under that soil is limestone aggregate, as well as high-quality dolostone, that is in demand for road building and construction in Toronto and beyond. Several years ago, an investment group called the Highland Companies, backed by a Boston-based hedge fund, began buying the farmland in question, and they have been growing potatoes on the thousands of acres they own ever since. Then, last spring, it was revealed that the company wanted to extract this aggregate and ship it to the city. Over a period of decades, the plan would be to excavate approximately 2,000 acres of land, working on about 300 acres at one time, said Lindsay Broadhead, spokesperson for the Highland Companies. "The life of the quarry is upwards of 100 years," she said. "You can't just dynamite the whole land. In Ontario, extraction is met by market demand."
In order to access the stone located at a depth that is below the water table, the company's plans include what they call a quarry de-watering scheme that will continuously pump out water from an aquifer. "It works like a sump pump system," she explained. "It's the same as you'd use in a basement on a large scale." In the company's original dig application documents, they said that 600 million liters would be pumped every day. Broadhead, though, says they now believe this number will be lower. And after an area has been excavated, she explained, they plan to rehabilitate the quarry and return it to agriculture.