• Solids are implementers that get things done ... now. Gases are idea people, and oftentimes execution is secondary.
• For solids, change is a dirty word. For gases, change is an end in and of itself.
Worsening this gap are attitudinal differences. For instance, the solid food operators perceive a "we know what's better for you" attitude coming from the academic community and take that as an insult. On the other hand, many researchers and activists feel that industry is too stuck-in-the-mud to listen to their arguments about why change is necessary.
The retailers argue that the researchers don't know how to run a business and do not fully appreciate what an executive has to deal with to be successful, such as meeting quarterly earnings targets, improving sales and market share, and increasing the stock price. Most advocates take the high ground and offer the rebuttal, "So what! It's more important to fix these problems."
Perhaps most revealing is the political bent of each group. Anyone who has ever attended a PAC event sponsored by the restaurant or supermarket industry knows that these food capitalists lean heavily to the Retail Right. In contrast, academic researchers and activists overwhelmingly support liberal causes and are what we might call Food Leftists. The bottom line is that the members of the Retail Right see these Food Leftists as "ivory-tower-ish" and pushing for change they don't believe in. The retort is that the retailers are boorish and stuck. They're the party of "No!" to any progress in improving America's health.
Let's review an example of how these differences play out.
In the early 1990s, researchers identified trans fats found in partially hydrogenated frying and baking oils as a hazard to consumer health. Studies indicated that these oils yielded the double whammy of raising bad cholesterol (LDL) while lowering good cholesterol (HDL), resulting in at least 30,000 heart-disease related deaths annually. Academics and activist organizations started screaming that trans fats were "the biggest food processing disaster in U.S. history," and pushed to require them to be listed on food package labels or even banned altogether. Yet by the end of the century, little progress had been made.
Things heated up in May 2003 when BanTransFat.com sued Kraft, asking the company to immediately eliminate trans fats in Oreo cookies. The Center for Science in the Public Interest joined in by suing the likes of KFC and McDonald's.
As expected, there was blowback from the food industry. Some companies refused to support conferences if advocates of eliminating trans fats, like Walter Willett, chair of Harvard's Department of Nutrition, were invited to speak. Dan Fleshler, a spokesman for the National Restaurant Association, was quoted as saying, "We don't think that a municipal health agency (like New York City's) has any business banning a product that the Food and Drug Administration has already approved."