A reader writes:

Your discussion of doubt and America can't sensibly omit C.S. Peirce, the founder of pragmatism, who described himself as a fallibilist, and indeed, as a defender of contrite fallibilism. (He extended this even to mathematics.) Money quote:

"For years [---] I used for myself to collect my ideas under the designationfallibilism; and indeed the first step toward finding out is to acknowledge you do not satisfactorily know already; so that no blight can so surely arrest all intellectual growth as the blight of cocksureness; and ninety-nine out of every hundred good heads are reduced to impotence by that malady -- of whose inroads they are most strangely unaware. Indeed, out of a contrite fallibilism, combined with a high faith in the reality of knowledge, and an intense desire to find things out, all my philosophy has always seemed to me to grow. . . ." (A Fragment, CP 1.13-14, c. 1897)


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