by Patrick Appel

A reader writes:

This reader seems to confuse the terms bourgeoisie and middle class. Regardless of the origins of middle class, it's not used in a modern sense as a synonym for bourgeois. Even in a strictly Marxist use, the equivalent would be petite bourgeoisie, not the ruling capitalist class. And it wasn't often that even the haute bourgeoisie out-earned the aristocracy, but rather a trend from the rise of mercantilism and the industrial revolution that eventually toppled the system of formal nobility as the primary factor in social class.

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