Via Conor, William Easterly says no:

Who is depriving the poor of their right to an adequate income? There are many theories of poverty, but few of them lead to a clear identification of the Violator of this right. Moreover, human rights are a clear dichotomy -- someone violates your rights or they do not. But the line between poor and not-poor is arbitrary -- it is different in different countries, and on a global scale, many still argue what is the right dividing line that constitutes poverty. So calling poverty a "human rights violation" does not point to any concrete actions that the "violator" must stop in order to restore rights to the "violated."

Wilkinson wrestles with the question.

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