The CIA and the Screenplay For "Animal Farm"

In the heyday of the Cold War, the CIA had its fingers in almost everything. Not like today, of course. Among their projects was bankrolling John Halas and Joy Batchelor's 1954 movie of Orwell's Animal Farm. Alas, Orwell wasn't completely on message. From an engrossing review at the LRB:

Most problematic ... was Orwell's pessimistic ending, in which the pigs become indistinguishable from their human former masters. No matter how often the movie's screenplay was altered, it always concluded with a successful farmyard uprising in which the oppressed animals overthrew the dictatorial pigs. The Animal Farm project had been initiated when Harry Truman was president; Dwight Eisenhower took office in January 1953, with John Foster Dulles as his secretary of state and Allen Dulles heading the CIA. Leab notes that Animal Farm’s mandated ending complemented the new Dulles policy, which – abandoning Truman’s aim of containing Communism – planned a 'roll back', at least in Eastern Europe. As one of the script’s many advisors put it, Animal Farm's ending should be one where the animals 'get mad, ask for help from the outside, which they get, and which results in their (the Russian people) with the help of the free nations overthrowing their oppressors'.

And all in a movie designed in part to warn against propaganda.

(Hat tip: 3QD.)