Tyrion Lannister has suffered multiple indignities throughout the history of Game of Thrones, largely at the hands of his unfeeling father and fratricidal sister. In "The Laws of Gods and Men," they were paraded before him in a show trial, a series of lies, insults, and indignities, the kind he had been able to tolerate individually over the year but could not stand any more. Much like episode two, which spent half its running time on Joffrey's wedding, much of episode six was given over to Tyrion's trial. It was a bigger challenge, since Joffrey's wedding ended with his satisfying death, and this just had the cliffhanger of potential trial by combat. But it was charting an equally colossal moment.
"The Laws of Gods and Men" is a somewhat mocking title, considering the ridiculous nature of Tyrion's trial (he's given very little chance to defend himself or cross-examine witnesses), but it also refers to the laws that have long bound Tyrion to his noble family and served to protect him. Tywin once told him he would have happily left him to die but for the Lannister name Tyrion bears, and it's a name he's used to survive and thrive in a world that would have otherwise rejected him because of his stature. For all of his self-awareness, Tyrion has always considered himself a Lannister. In terms of his cunning and forward thinking, he's his father's truest heir, and as he reminded everyone in the throne room, he protected King's Landing from certain capture at the Blackwater.
Tyrion can shoulder the accusations leveled at him from people he despises (like Grand Maester Pycelle and Meryn Trant) and even from those he respects (Varys' testimony clearly stung, but Tyrion knows that Varys looks out for himself above anyone else). Just as with Ned's imprisonment in season one, we're led to believe that Tyrion will take the black and ride to the Wall, as part of a deal between Jaime and Tywin that will see Jaime become the heir his father wants him to be.