Spike Jonze's film isn't the first portrayal of a servile, seemingly caring artificial-intelligence program. Robots have taken on traditionally feminine human roles since the 1960s.
A new crop of films portrays their lifestyle as rebellious, adolescent fun. But what made the Beats so influential in the first place was that they were radical, free-thinking adults.
The Lifeguard, Adore, and A Teacher treat the women who commit or nearly commit statutory rape as less threatening than their male counterparts.
For decades, writers have been publishing guides to make the movement seem appealing to young women. How convincing are they?