As I wrote in 2009:
The level of innovation has fallen off considerably in older industrial regions like Pittsburgh and Detroit. It has also fallen off in Sunbelt regions like Dallas with a large presence in computers and communications and Houston with its strong concentration of resource and energy industries.On the other hand, innovation has increased substantially in high-tech regions like Silicon Valley, San Francisco, and Seattle and also in Los Angeles.Two other large regions - New York and Chicago - more or less conform to Mandel's thesis: Both saw dramatic growth in the late 1990s followed by precipitous drops in the 2000s which erased those gains.Overall, American innovation has become more geographically concentrated and spikier.
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