And what about noncomputerized, physical tools?
Oh, everything gets thrown in my physical in-basket. My physical in-basket is my savior. It is my safety net, it is my catchall, it is my "Gee, I don't want to have to think about any of that stuff yet." And so you need that parking lot. It's really critical to have a parking lot like that, because capture is a very different process than decision making and organizing. So I have to keep those distinct, so that allows me a placeholder so that then when it's time, when that stuff starts to pile up, and I go "Okay, it's starting to stink and there's mildew in there, I better empty out my in-basket"--so then that frees up my head; that allows me to just place-hold stuff. But mostly it's just that low-tech stuff I put in there. I probably throw out 80 percent of my notes.
And we're talking about real, on-paper notes?
Correct. I only have--it would be nice to do electronic; it would be nice if all of that went to the same place, so a universal in-basket would be nice. It's not a crying need, because I know where all that stuff is. The problem with all this digital stuff is "out of sight, out of mind." That's the bad news about the computer and why low-tech is oftentimes better--because it's in your face. I know quite a number of people, high-tech people, who have gone back to paper-based planners and lists because it's much more evident, and it doesn't sort of go away and you [don't] go numb to it, which you can very easily do on the computer. You have to have a high level of GTD discipline and knowledge-worker discipline to get yourself to go back in your computer and make sure none of that stuff is lying fallow for any length of time.
I teach this stuff, and I talk about purging all my mind maps--you know, geez, I've probably got about 150 mind maps that have just collected all kinds of stuff in there, and I think I'm pretty good in terms of having pulled any potential actionable stuff or meaningful stuff, but it can mount up like crazy.
Let's talk about another aspect of the always-connected world: distractedness. What's your view of the world in which everyone is always looking at a smartphone to see what's just come in. Does this matter?
Yes, it's very frustrating when people are engaged elsewhere when they're actually supposed to be pretending like they're in some social environment. The truth is they actually are, it's just a virtual social environment, not the physical one. But I'd just as soon they not be there physically, because it's bothersome to have them distracted. They're partially there and partially not, so some part of me feels I have to engage with them in some more-interesting ways. Now, that might just be because I'm 66 years old.
What about the sheer volume of information we have to cope with now? Isn't that a difference in degree that becomes a difference in kind?
Information overload is not the issue. If it were, you'd walk into the library and die. As soon as you connected to the Web, you'd just explode.
In fact, the most information-rich place in the world is the most relaxing: it's called nature. It has more varied horizons, more detail, more input of all sorts. As a matter of fact, if you want to go crazy, get rid of all your information: it's called sensory deprivation.
The thing about nature is, it's information rich, but the meaningful things in nature are relatively few--berries, bears and snakes, thunderstorms, maybe poison oak. There are only a few things in nature that force me to change behavior or make a decision. The problem with e-mail is that it's not just information; it's the need for potential action. It's the berries and snakes and bears, but they're embedded, and you don't know what's in each one.
Not only that, but e-mail has a trait that fits the core of addictive behavior, which is random positive reinforcement.
What is that?
So you get an e-mail from your mom, or you get an e-mail from your boss--they contain snakes or berries or bears, but they're not self-evident until you look. Now, some part of you, subliminally, is constantly going, That could be meaningful, that could be meaningful, that could change what I'm doing, that might be something I don't want to decide about ... You multiply that by the hundreds, if not thousands, of items sitting there.
All those things you're not deciding about wear you down, and decision-making functions just like a muscle. If you've had half a day of a lot of decisions to make, you don't have much willpower left the rest of the day. So then we walk around with what I call the GSA of life--the Gnawing Sense of Anxiety that something out there might be more important than what you're currently doing. You don't remember what it is, but it might be more important than whatever you're doing, so you're not present anywhere. You're at work worrying about home, and you're at home worrying about work, and you're neither place psychologically when you're there physically. That's hugely undermining of your productivity, and certainly adds hugely to the stress factor.
What's different these days? Nothing is different really, except how frequently this occurs. You and I have gotten more change-producing and priority-shifting inputs in the past 72 hours than your parents got in a month, some of them in a year. I was reading that in 1912, someone was complaining about the telephone, exactly the same things you hear people say about e-mail: "Oh my God, it's going to ruin our quality of life"; "conversations are going to become surface-only and not meaningful"; "all the interruptions and distractions!" It reads like right now. I am hearing the same things I did when I first got into these issues, at Lockheed in 1983. In those days, if you even had a pocket Day-Timer, you were considered something of a productivity geek. The difference is that rather than a small minority of people experiencing this stress, it's a much larger group of people, at every level.
And as organizations have gotten a lot flatter, you see more "executive responsibility" at every level. In the military, how many decisions does a corporal need to be able to make in the field right now? What if it's Black Hawk Down and CNN gets in my face with a microphone, and I'm a junior officer--what the hell do I need to be aware of? That's why [at the Air War College] they're teaching even the kids the global politics and situational awareness that used to be just for generals. The flatter we've become, the more [we require] a much higher percentage of our professional workforce to have the kinds of skills we're talking about right now.
Our magazine has published a lot about the possible effects of technology on human knowledge, even thinking. For instance, [Nicholas Carr's July/August 2008 cover story,] "Is Google Making Us Stupid?" Where do you stand on these issues? Do you think human deliberation or wisdom is changing for better or worse?