Daniel Kahneman on 'Emergent Weirdness' in Artifical Intelligences

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Our machines' computational biases are not the same as our brain's cognitive biases, which is going to be weird

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Daniel Kahneman is a Nobel laureate, eminent Princeton psychologist, and godfather of behavioral economics. So, when he speaks about emergent phenomenon, it's probably worth listening.

In this case, he submitted himself to a group Q&A by the readers of Freakonomics, and someone asked him about Apple's Siri and how artificial intelligence more generally might reflect human cognitive biases.

Q. With the launch of Siri and a stated aim to be using the data collected to improve the performance of its AI, should we expect these types of quasi-intelligences to develop the same behavioral foibles that we exhibit, or should we expect something completely different? And if something different, would that something be more likely to reflect the old "rational" assumptions of behavior, or some totally other emergent set of biases and quirks based on its own underlying architecture? My money's on emergent weirdness, but then, I don't have a Nobel Prize. -Peter Bennett

A. Emergent weirdness is a good bet. Only deduction is certain. Whenever an inductive short-cut is applied, you can search for cases in which it will fail. It is always useful to ask "What relevant factors are not considered?" and "What irrelevant factors affect the conclusions?" By their very nature, heuristic shortcuts will produce biases, and that is true for both humans and artificial intelligence, but the heuristics of AI are not necessarily the human ones.

The emphasis above is mine. If what he's saying is a little opaque, let me unpack it. Human brains take shortcuts in making decisions. Finding where those shortcuts lead us to dumb places is what his life work has been all about. Artificial intelligences, say, Google, also have to take shortcuts, but they are *not* the same ones that our brains use. So, when an AI ends up in a weird place by taking a shortcut, that bias strikes us as uncannily weird.

Get ready, too, because AI bias is going to start replacing human cognitive bias more and more regularly.

Via @FelixSalmon

Image: imredesiuk/Shutterstock.

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Alexis C. Madrigal

Alexis Madrigal is the deputy editor of TheAtlantic.com. He's the author of Powering the Dream: The History and Promise of Green Technology. More

The New York Observer has called Madrigal "for all intents and purposes, the perfect modern reporter." He co-founded Longshot magazine, a high-speed media experiment that garnered attention from The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and the BBC. While at Wired.com, he built Wired Science into one of the most popular blogs in the world. The site was nominated for best magazine blog by the MPA and best science website in the 2009 Webby Awards. He also co-founded Haiti ReWired, a groundbreaking community dedicated to the discussion of technology, infrastructure, and the future of Haiti.

He's spoken at Stanford, CalTech, Berkeley, SXSW, E3, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and his writing was anthologized in Best Technology Writing 2010 (Yale University Press).

Madrigal is a visiting scholar at the University of California at Berkeley's Office for the History of Science and Technology. Born in Mexico City, he grew up in the exurbs north of Portland, Oregon, and now lives in Oakland.

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