To address the rising concerns with cost as the Great Depression loomed, Eastman Kodak introduced 8mm film in 1932
For most who plan on attending showings of J.J. Abrams' much anticipated summer monster flick, Super 8, the historical and technological importance of Super 8 as a revolutionary film innovation will mean next to nothing. Similarly, it is unlikely anyone will give a thought to how Super 8 is different from any other film stock, other than maybe considering it an archaic design no longer relevant or useful in the digital age. In response, we present an analysis of the history and use of Super 8.
16MM: THE BEGINNINGS OF AMATEUR FILM
The invention and development of motion pictures in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was rapidly followed by considerations of its potential as a consumer product in home entertainment. However, problems with size, price and safety meant that in order for movies to be a marketable commodity, certain adjustments needed to be made. At the time, standard film was 35mm wide and nitrate-based, requiring large equipment and expensive processing. It was also highly flammable. Because of this, efforts were focused on reducing the size of both film and film equipment, as well as on developing a non-nitrate "safety" film which would eliminate the possible risk of fire in the home.
While several safe, affordable and user-friendly cameras were made in both Europe and in the United States, Eastman Kodak's 1923 invention of the Cine-Kodak trumped the competition. The Cine-Koda used new, 16mm acetate safety film, which underwent a process of direct film reversal. During this process, exposed film is developed to a negative image, after which the image is bleached out, leaving unconverted silver grains. The film is then exposed and developed again, so that the unconverted silver grains reveal a positive image. This method shortens the developing process by one step, ultimately saving the user time and money. It was also discovered that through this process the grain size of a finished positive was finer than that produced from a "conventionally developed" negative, allowing for the overall size of an image to be clearly and accurately reduced. Eastman Kodak's final product was a 16mm wide film strip perforated on both sides with a 10mm x 7.5mm image moving at 40 frames per foot. The film was not only less than half the width of conventional 35mm film, but also 1/6th the cost.
The Cine-Kodak itself was a die-cast aluminum box measuring 8 ½ x 8 x 4 5/8 inches and weighing about seven pounds. At the time of its original release, the camera was only available in a set which also included a Kodascope Projector, tripod, screen and a splicer for $325. As Kodak points out on their website, this was at the time when a "new Ford automobile could be purchased for $550" (Kodak's "Super 8mm Film History"). Although expensive, it was thought that the all-inclusive package would facilitate success for amateur filmmakers. By 1929, 13 different cameras using 16mm film were available.
(Geologist and amateur filmmaker William Wrather used 16mm film to record this footage of the Gallup Ceremonial in New Mexico circa 1926-1932.)
DOUBLE 8 VS SINGLE 8 VS SUPER 8: WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE?
Although safe, easy-to-use cameras became more available, they had not become more affordable. In 1932, Kodak's most basic model, the M 475, cost $75 -- an amount equal to two weeks wages for hourly laborers. Similarly, the cheapest projector cost $60 and a 100-foot roll of film, $6. To address the rising concerns with cost as the Great Depression loomed, Eastman Kodak introduced 8mm film in 1932. This film came on 25' spools of 16mm, with two sides of 8mm film, or "double 8." After being threaded through the camera and exposed on one half, the film was then turned over and re-threaded to expose the other. During processing, this double width would be split down the middle and spliced together to make a 50-foot reel of 8mm film perforated only on one side. Since the 8mm was a quarter of the size of 16mm, it reduced the amount of film necessary to achieve the same running time as 16mm and the cost of processing by a factor of four. The Cine-Kodak Eight Model 20 cost $29.50, the projector, $22.50 and a spool of film, $2.50.
Kodak's prime competitor, Bell & Howell, released their own 8mm camera in 1935, the Filmo Straight Eight, which sold for $69. Unlike Kodak's model, Bell & Howell used pre-split 8mm film to produce an even more compact, lightweight camera. In 1938, the Universal Camera Corporation put out an incredibly inexpensive single 8mm camera for only $9.95, with a companion projector for $14.95. The overall reduction of size and cost, and increased accessibility made 8mm the favorite format for hobby amateur filmmaking, a format that would remain essentially untouched for nearly 30 years.