Rube Goldberg and the Irreducible Strangeness of Electricity


Rube Goldberg was shockingly popular in his heyday. His brilliant "Inventions" series was nationally syndicated beginning in the teens and his style became one of the most instantly recognizable in the nation. He gave his name to our lexicon. 

None of Goldberg's mythical machines is remotely practical. "As we move forward along the gadget-strewn path of mechanization we become more and more aware of the general theme, DO IT THE HARD WAY," he once wrote. "The more trivial the product, the more complicated machine."

The cartoons both send-up and memorialize the crazed inventors of America, a breed that was already decreasing in importance by the time Goldberg reached a national audience. Certainly that's a huge part of their appeal.

But I want to suggest that there was something else going on, too. Goldberg's inventions are, fundamentally, mechanical jokes. You can see the chain of events. An action begets a reaction which gets another reaction, and on it goes. That's how mechanical things work. If you want to move something, you need to pull it or push or rotate it with another thing. If you want to move something big, you need a big thing or something moving fast.

We humans understand all this intuitively. All the action is at the macro level and you can see what's happening.

In the mechanical era, basically every factory had to run a bit like a Rube Goldberg machine. Here, an old version of Encyclopaedia Britannica instructs us on how you might transmit power from a water wheel or a steam engine to the machines of a manufactory.

The mechanical transmission of power is effected by means of belts or ropes, by shafts or by wheel gearing and chains... The problems involved in the design and arrangement of the mechanisms for the mechanical distribution of power are conveniently approached by the consideration of the way in which the mechanical energy made available by an engine is distributed to several machines in the factory. By a belt on the fly-wheel of the prime mover the power is transmitted to the line shaft, and pulleys suitably placed along the line shaft by means of other belts transmit power, first, to small countershafts carrying fast and loose pulleys and striking gear for starting or stopping each machine at will, and then to the driving pulleys of several machines.

 pulley factory.jpg

Electricity, or humans ability to channel and use electricity, changed all that. This week, electricity nerds celebrated Michael Faraday's birth in 1791. His discoveries in the fundamental properties of electromagnetism were one of the foundations of the electrical revolution that came around the turn of the 20th century. Here, Wired's Randy Alfred describes his famous 1821 experiment:

In his most famous experience, "Faraday suspended a wire above a magnet. When he passed a current through the wire (whose bottom end hung in a dish of conductive mercury), the wire rotated around the magnet, following lines of magnetic force. It was a prototype for the electric motor, using electricity to create motion.

We don't give this operation credit for being as weird as it is. Charles Eliot once wrote, "Electricity: carrier of light and power, devourer of space and time, bearer of human speech over land and sea, greatest servant of man--yet itself unknown." We understand what electricity does for us, but we don't understand it.

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