Ta-Nehisi Coates is a senior editor at The Atlantic, where he writes about culture, politics, and social issues. He is the author of the memoir The Beautiful Struggle. More
Born in 1975, the product of two beautiful parents. Raised in West Baltimore -- not quite The Wire, but sometimes ill all the same. Studied at the Mecca for some years in the mid-'90s. Emerged with a purpose, if not a degree. Slowly migrated up the East Coast with a baby and my beloved, until I reached the shores of Harlem. Wrote some stuff along the way.
The Founding Fathers, far from being ideologues, were not even politicians. They were an assortment of businessmen, writers, teachers, planters; men, in short, who knew something of the world, which is to say, of Human Nature. Their struggle to draft a set of rules acceptable to each other was based on the assumption that we human beings, in the mass, are no damned good -- that we are biddable, easily confused, and that we may easily be motivated by a Politician, which is to say, a huckster, mounting a soapbox and inflaming our passions.
Tyson's paid his debt to society and deserves a chance to work in his chosen profession, which is acting. But it's not as if the man lacks for opportunities. The director James Toback has featured Tyson as himself in his features When Will I Be Loved and Black and White, and he examined Tyson's life in a documentary that premiered at Cannes in 2008. Tyson's been in both Hangover movies, and Spike Lee produced Tyson's one-man show, Undisputed Truth, which got a Broadway run--an exceedingly rare opportunity. I don't really think there's any question that Tyson has gotten a fair shot to pursue work in the entertainment industry, even if we're applying a heightened standard to compensate for the idea that there's employment discrimination against people who have been incarcerated... As a potentially sympathetic killer, it doesn't sound like Tyson will be bringing local cred or fading into an out-of-the-box role—and the worry is that the character's proximity to Tyson's life story will somehow whitewash his crimes. Without having seen the episode, none of us can really say. But Leight better hope that casting Tyson in this part really does lend life experience to the show and deepen the episode. Otherwise, it's SVU handing over its credibility to someone who still hasn't earned it.Over at Jezebel, Lindy West fumes:
Now, Tyson completed his sentence and is free to live his life at this point. But that doesn't mean we all have to be complicit in the rehabilitation of his image. That doesn't mean SVU has to hire him. Like I said, SVU's not perfect, but it's something--a small counterpoint to the rape apologia that currently pervades our culture. It at least attempts to unpack tough ideas about shame and victim blaming and the way we protect rapists by stigmatizing sexual violence. Mariska Hargitay runs a foundation to support victims of sexual abuse, for Christ's sake. When I wrote about SVU before, I heard from a lot of victims who say they find SVU therapeutic.As West and Rosenberg point out, Tyson actually was convicted and did actually serve time. So it's not as if there was no justice. For that reason, I've generally been in the "let him live" crowd. But conviction cuts both ways. It's always disturbed me that some of the people who cast Tyson—or rather James Toback, specifically—have never really grappled with what Tyson was actually convicted of doing. (West outlines the specifics.) That aside, the specific point here is that it is bizarre to cast a convicted rapist in a show where sexual violence is such a persistent theme.This is about more than "letting Tyson get on with his life." As Alyssa points out, he's gotten on with his life quite well.
This is true, but at the same time the athletes are individuals with significant autonomy, and I think they're more cognizant of the risks than most people seem to think they are. Unless a person is totally out of touch with reality, they ultimately bear responsibility for their actions, and I don't think we should minimize them, or claim that they're being thrown to the wind by duplicitous team doctors because we disagree with, when there are numerous instances of the players lying to the coaches to get back into the game. I'm sure some of this is because of how they've been taught, and pressure from their teammates, but I think a large part of it is also that this is the type of personality it takes to succeed in a competitive environment.
Uhhh...yes it's tackle football, and yes it's still dangerous. Every player who steps onto the field knows that and accepts the risk. Don't like it? Get out.
On 9/11 343 firefighters died in the twin towers, all males, giving their lives to save others. Males have always been risk takers with a view to providing, protecting and entertaining others. Yes, let's work to make it safer for these amazing men to do what they do--but desist with the attempts to create some sort of utopian fairyland where we live on pixie dust and old Happy Days reruns.
Take a look at this recent article from Esquire about NFL injuries from the players' perspective. It seems to me that these players are making the same Achillian bargain that young men have been making for eons. They're fully aware of the damage the sport does to their bodies...and they wouldn't have it any other way.
Concerning the first, there is a saying much usurped of late, That Wisedome is acquired, not by reading of Books, but of Men. Consequently whereunto, those persons, that for the most part can give no other proof of being wise, take great delight to shew what they think they have read in men, by uncharitable censures of one another behind their backs.But there is another saying not of late understood, by which they might learn truly to read one another, if they would take the pains; and that is, Nosce Teipsum, Read Thy Self: which was not meant, as it is now used, to countenance, either the barbarous state of men in power, towards their inferiors; or to encourage men of low degree, to a sawcie behaviour towards their betters; But to teach us, that for the similitude of the thoughts, and Passions of one man, to the thoughts, and Passions of another, whosoever looketh into himselfe, and considereth what he doth, when he does Think, Opine, Reason, Hope, Feare, &c, and upon what grounds; he shall thereby read and know, what are the thoughts, and Passions of all other men, upon the like occasions.I say the similitude of Passions, which are the same in all men, Desire, Feare, Hope, &c; not the similitude or The Objects of the Passions, which are the things Desired, Feared, Hoped, &c: for these the constitution individuall, and particular education do so vary, and they are so easie to be kept from our knowledge, that the characters of mans heart, blotted and confounded as they are, with dissembling, lying, counterfeiting, and erroneous doctrines, are legible onely to him that searcheth hearts. And though by mens actions wee do discover their designee sometimes; yet to do it without comparing them with our own, and distinguishing all circumstances, by which the case may come to be altered, is to decypher without a key, and be for the most part deceived, by too much trust, or by too much diffidence; as he that reads, is himselfe a good or evill man.But let one man read another by his actions never so perfectly, it serves him onely with his acquaintance, which are but few. He that is to govern a whole Nation, must read in himselfe, not this, or that particular man; but Man-kind; which though it be hard to do, harder than to learn any Language, or Science; yet, when I shall have set down my own reading orderly, and perspicuously, the pains left another, will be onely to consider, if he also find not the same in himselfe. For this kind of Doctrine, admitteth no other Demonstration.
We've spent quite a bit of time discussing the NFL and head trauma. One rather constant claim is that the NFL has always been always been straight about head trauma and that players "knew the risks." I think it's helpful to weigh that claim against the actual history. Here is one rendition of that history.
1992 - Al Toon suffers his fifth reported concussion in six seasons. Asked if he will retire Toon says, he's "not thinking about retirement right now."
A week later Toon retires saying, "I feel better sitting still than moving around. I get real tired. Things I normally help with around the house, I can't."
1994 - The NFL establishes the Mild Traumatic Brain Injury committee. Rheumatologist Elliot Pellman is installed as its chair. "Concussions are part of the profession, an occupational risk," rheumatologist Pellman tells Sports Illustrated. He says that a football player is "like a steelworker who goes up 100 stories, or a soldier."
Pellman continues--"Veterans clear more quickly than rookies...They can unscramble their brains a little faster, maybe because they're not afraid after being dinged. A rookie won't know what's happened to him and will be a little panicky. The veterans almost expect the dings. You have to watch them, though, because vets will try to fool you. They memorize the answers. They'll run off the field staring at the scoreboard."
1995 - The Jets try to improve Boomer Esiason's recovery time from a concussion by employing what the Times calls a "innovative but unproved form of biofeedback therapy." The Jets team physician explains the treatment as "having a head filled with marbles knocked around after a hit. The biofeedback is trying to put them back in the same order." The Jets team physician admits that they have no controls to show whether the treatment is effective. The Jets team physician is Elliot Pellman.
1997 - The American Academy of Neurology establishes guidelines for concussed athletes returning to play. The guidelines recommend holding athletes who suffer a Grade 3 concussion (loss of consciousness) be taken "withheld from play until asymptomatic for 1 week at rest and with exertion."
2000 - The NFL rejects these guidelines. ''We don't know whether being knocked out briefly is any more dangerous than having amnesia and not being knocked out,'' says neurologist Mark R. Lovell. ''We see people all the time that get knocked out briefly and have no symptoms,'' he added. ''Others get elbowed, go back to the bench and say, 'Where am I?' ''
Lovell is a consultant for NFL and the NHL.
2002 - Hall of Fame Pittsburgh Steeler center Mike Webster dies. Towards the end of his life Webster was living out a pick-up truck, using a Taser to ease back pain, and applying Super Glue to his teeth.
2003 - In a game against the New York Giants, Kurt Warner suffers a concussion. Confusion ensues over the medical chain of command. Warner's coach, Mike Martz, says that the team doctor cleared Warner to play. The doctor, Bernard T. Garfinkel, agrees. But asked why Warner was allowed to play even though he "had trouble deciphering plays," Garfinkel says, "That's a coaching decision, not a medical decision."
Warner leaves Giant stadium in an ambulance.
"I would say it's not the coach; it's ultimately the physician's decision," says Pellman. "But you can't have a hard and fast protocol, because the injury is all over the place."
2003 - Wayne Chrebet suffers a concussion in a November game against the Giants. The following discussion between Pellman and Chrebet takes place:
"There's going to be some controversy about you going back to play." Elliot Pellman looks Wayne Chrebet in the eye in the fourth quarter of a tight game, Jets vs. Giants on Nov. 2, 2003, at the Meadowlands.
A knee to the back of the head knocked Chrebet stone-cold unconscious a quarter earlier, and now the Jets' team doctor is putting the wideout through a series of mental tests. Pellman knows Chrebet has suffered a concussion, but the player is performing adequately on standard memory exercises.
"This is very important for you," the portly physician tells the local hero, as was later reported in the New York Daily News. "This is very important for your career."
Then he asks, "Are you okay?"
When Chrebet replies, "I'm fine," Pellman sends him back in.
2004 - In September, former Steelers offensive linemen Justin Strzelczyk leads the police on a high speed chase through central New York, colliding at 90 MPH with a tractor trailer. The trailer explodes, killing Strzelcyzyk instantly.
Neuropathologist Bennet Omalu later finds evidence of CTE in Strzelczyk's brain. Dr Ronald Hamilton of the University of Pittsburgh confirms Omalu's assessment: "If I didn't know anything about this case and I looked at the slides, I would have asked, 'Was this patient a boxer?'"
2005 - In January, Pellman and MTBI publish their seventh in a series of research papers on concussions, concluding, in part, "Return to play does not involve a significant risk of a second injury either in the same game or during the season."
2005 - In March, the Times reports that Pellman has exaggerated his credentials.
2005 - In June, former Pittsburgh Steelers guard Terry Long commits suicide by drinking antifreeze. Neuropathologist Bennet Omalu later examines Long's brain and concludes he suffered from Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.
"People with chronic encephalopathy suffer from depression. The major depressive disorder may manifest as suicide attempts. Terry Long committed suicide due to the chronic traumatic encephalopathy due to his long-term play," Dr. Omalu tells the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette "The NFL has been in denial."
Steelers neurosurgeon Joseph Maroon says Omalu is employing "fallacious reasoning" saying "I don't think it's plausible at all ... to go back and say that he was depressed from playing in the NFL and that led to his death 14 years later, I think is purely speculative."
2005 - In July the peer-reviewed journal Neurosurgery prints Omalu's autopsy and brain analysis of "Iron" Mike Webster. Omalu concludes that Webster suffered from Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.
2006 - Pellman's MTBI committee releases research concluding that "on-field evaluation by team physicians is effective with regard to the identification of cognitive and memory impairments immediately after an injury."
The paper also again rejects The American Academy of Neurology's guidelines, concluding that:
...current attempts to link prospective grading of concussion symptoms to arbitrary, rigid management decisions are not consistent with scientific data. We believe that if one insists on grading concussion severity, the best way is retrospectively, on the basis of how long it actually takes the player to become asymptomatic, with normal results on neurological examination. It is the recommendation of the NFL's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury that team physicians treat their players on a case-by-case basis, using their best clinical judgment and basing their decisions on the most relevant, objective medical data obtained.
2006 - In May,The NFL's MTBI committee attack Bennett Omalu's analysis of Webster claiming it contains "serious flaws." The committee then demands a retraction.
2006 - In November, former Philadelphia Eagles safety Andre Waters shoots himself in the head. After examining his brain, Omalu diagnoses Waters as having suffered from CTE. Waters was 44 at the time of his death. Omalu says he had the brain of an 85-year old man.
MBTI member and Baltimore Ravens physician Andrew Tucker says, "The picture is not really complete until we have the opportunity to look at the same group of people over time."
2007 - In May, the NFL commissioner establishes a league-wide minimum for "baseline neurological tests" to be mandatory on sidelines. Goodell announces an offseason "concussion summit." "We're protecting the players against the players."
2007 - An NFL safety pamphlet notifies players, "Current research with professional athletes has not shown that having more than one or two concussions leads to permanent problems if each injury is managed properly."
2009 - NFL spokesman Greg Aiello acknowledges, "It's quite obvious from the medical research that's been done that concussions can lead to long-term problems,"
2009 - The NFL begins to put up posters in locker rooms that state, in part, "Concussions and conditions resulting from repeated brain injury can change your life and your family's life forever."
"This is about Roger Goodell, that fraud, covering his own ass," says former defensive lineman Dave Pear.
2009 - Goodell testifies in front of a House Judiciary Committee saying, "My approach to this concussion issue in football has been simple and direct - medical considerations must always take priority over competitive considerations."
2010 - Responding to research from neurologist Ann McKee on CTE, Ira Casson, co-chairman of the MTBI, tells Congress that, "Tau deposition is the predominant pathology in a number of other neurologic diseases that have never been linked to athletics or head trauma. Some of these diseases have genetic causes, some have environmental toxic causes, and others are still of unknown cause."
2010 - In March, the NFL creates a new committee to study concussions, distancing itself from Pellman and Ira Casson. Prominent neurologists Dr. H. Hunt Batjer and Dr. Richard G. Ellenbogen are appointed as co-chairs. Batjer says the following about the MBTI: "We all had issues with some of the methodologies... the inherent conflict of interest... that was not acceptable by any modern standards or not acceptable to us."
2010 - In September, Eagles quarterback Kevin Kolb and linebacker Stewart Bradley suffer concussions. ESPN reports that Kolb "slammed into the turf, his eyes closed for several seconds and he was slow to get up and walk to the sideline," while Bradley, "on all fours, struggled to get up on his own power, stumbled for a few steps and toppled to the ground."
Both players had concussions. Both were returned to the game.
2010 - In a display of seriousness over player safety, Steelers linebacker James Harrison is fined $75,000 for his hit on Browns receiver Mohamed Massaquoi in an October game. Somewhat undercutting this display, the NFL sells pictures of the hit on its website.
UPDATE: Forgive me but I forgot to thank Malcolm Burnley for the assist he lent on research. I could not have pieced this together alone. Thank you.
Sen. Charles W. "Bill" Carrico, R-Grayson, said the change is necessary because Virginia's populous, urbanized areas such as the Washington, D.C., suburbs and Hampton Roads can outvote rural regions such as his, rendering their will irrelevant.Last fall, President Barack Obama carried Virginia for the second election in a row, making him the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to win Virginia in back-to-back presidential elections.For his victories, he received all 13 of the state's electoral votes. Under Carrico's revision, Obama would have received only four Virginia electoral votes last year while Republican Mitt Romney would have received nine. Romney carried conservative rural areas while Obama dominated Virginia's cities and fast-growing suburbs.
In addition to disenfranchising voters in dense areas, this would end the principle of "one person, one vote." If Ohio operated under this scheme, for example, Obama would have received just 22 percent of the electoral votes, despite winning 52 percent of the popular vote in the state...It's also worth noting, again, that this constitutes a massive disenfranchisement of African American and other nonwhite voters, who tend to cluster near urban areas. When you couple this with the move on Monday to redraw the state's electoral maps -- eliminating one state senate district and packing black voters into another, diluting their strength -- it's as if Virginia Republicans are responding to Obama's repeat victory in the state by building an electoral facsimile of Jim Crow.
Here is an especially mind-blowing way to think about it: Tenses provide ways of talking about temporally distant locales in this spatiotemporal volume -- points in the past, present, or future. But subjunctive constructions provide ways of talking about potentially counterfactual realities -- about points in a space that includes spatiotemporal volumes that are utterly disconnected from this one. Call these "alternative realities" or "possible situations."
If this is your visualization of French tenses, a way to helpfully extend that to include the conditional might be to think of these other things not as intersecting lines but as complementing or parallel lines. Imagine you've got a line drawn on a page. Now imagine you realize that that line is actually more like a plank or a rectangle--it's got width to it. You still move between past, present, and future linearly, like you did before. But now you've got the ability to move sideways within this broader line to express different attitudes about past, present, and future.So "Je voudrais un café" sits right in the same general area that "J'ai besoin d'un café" does--it's next to the present tense on your mental timeline. But rather than being a dot on that line, it's more like a region of coverage. It extends a little bit into the future. And it also gets in a little bit of your attitude about the wanting--it's conditional. It's couched. It's not a direct line from wanting to having. It allows for other circumstances, the whims of other people.Or take a sentence like "Il serait ici s'il n'était pas malade" (he would be here if he weren't sick). Serait is a future conditional, formed by adding the conditional ending onto the regular future tense of etre. So on your mental timeline, it sits next to the future tense. But it expresses something more than a simple statement of future. It's a would-be, could-be future. It's a broad future with coverage that almost reaches back and touches the present because in an alternate universe, where he isn't sick, it IS the present.
You're improving but I think the next step you will have to reach when you translate is to re-think your sentence in french instead of using your english sentence and trying to stick close to it. "On Saturday" is a formula that has no real equivalence in french so french people would write/say something like "Samedi, je suis allé au marché". In the same vein but reversed, french people would be more likely to say "j'ai entendu dire" instead of "j'ai entendu". I'm not sure if "j'ai entendu" is wrong per say but it doesn't sound like "conversational" french I'm used to hear in Montreal. Do french people from other countries use that formula?
Seau was one of the best linebackers during his 20 seasons in the NFL. He retired in 2009. "We were saddened to learn that Junior, a loving father and teammate, suffered from CTE," the family said in a statement released to the AP."While Junior always expected to have aches and pains from his playing days, none of us ever fathomed that he would suffer a debilitating brain disease that would cause him to leave us too soon."We know this lawsuit will not bring back Junior. But it will send a message that the NFL needs to care for its former players, acknowledge its decades of deception on the issue of head injuries and player safety, and make the game safer for future generations."
Brain scans performed on five former NFL players revealed images of the protein that causes football-related brain damage -- the first time researchers have identified signs of the crippling disease in living players.Researchers who conducted the pilot study at UCLA described the findings as a significant step toward being able to diagnose the disease known as Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, or CTE, in living patients."I've been saying that identifying CTE in a living person is the Holy Grail for this disease and for us to be able make advances in treatment," said Dr. Julian Bailes, a Chicago neurosurgeon and one of the study's co-authors. "It's not definitive and there's a lot we still need to discover to help these people, but it's very compelling. It's a new discovery."
Through blood drawn by lash and blood drawn by sword, we learned that no union founded on the principles of liberty and equality could survive half-slave and half-free. We made ourselves anew, and vowed to move forward together.Together, we determined that a modern economy requires railroads and highways to speed travel and commerce, schools and colleges to train our workers.Together, we discovered that a free market only thrives when there are rules to ensure competition and fair play.Together, we resolved that a great nation must care for the vulnerable, and protect its people from life's worst hazards and misfortune.
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