When I spoke with Shelton about the prominence of women directors at Sundance, she credited it to the greater accessibility and lower production costs of the independent film world. She pointed out that as an indie director, "You don't need to ask for permission from very powerful money people to make your work. You can just grab a camera and go make your film. The digital revolution has really empowered people." As a result, Shelton has made an impressive total of five films in just seven years and has parlayed her indie film success into directing jobs on TV shows like as Mad Men, New Girl, and Ben and Kate.
Asked whether the achievements of women directors in the indie film world will translate into more opportunities for female directors in Hollywood, Shelton said, "I'm hoping that for women filmmakers who want to work in the industry and make bigger budget pictures they'll be able to prove themselves [in the indie film world], to say, 'I'm a real filmmaker, I know what I'm doing.'"
One Sundance film this year, In a World..., directly takes on this issue, telling the story of a female voice-over artist who strives to compete with the men who still narrate the majority of movies trailers and ads. The movie—the feature-directing debut for actress/director/writer Lake Bell—won the festival's Waldo Salt Screenwriting Award. "I think the voice-over world becomes an umbrella to tell a larger story," Bell explained to me after a Sundance panel on women directors. "Carol, the protagonist, is a person who is literally trying to find her voice. I think the male voice being the omniscient voice—that's an interesting topic for a cultural conversation ." As for the contrast between the indie world and the studio world, Bell noted on the panel, "It's much more rare in Hollywood to be a lady filmmaker. Hollywood is kind of a boy's club, but Sundance is more of a lady's club, which is really cool. You have that support."
Support from other women in the industry appears to be key. It was Megan Ellison of Annapurna Pictures who funded the $40 million dollar budget of Kathryn Bigelow's Zero Dark Thirty, while Amy Pascal of Sony Pictures was instrumental in releasing the film.
Hess, whose movie Napoleon Dynamite debuted at Sundance in 2004 and went on to gross $46 million on a budget of $400,000, told me that she was able to direct her Sundance feature Austenland because author Stephenie Meyer of the Twilight novels came on board as producer. The film, a comedy about a Jane Austen fan who goes to a British Austen-themed resort, was picked up at Sundance for approximately $4 million by Sony Pictures. It was one of the larger acquisitions at the festival and serves as an example of how indie films can be a pipeline for women directors into the studio system.
Hess said of working with Meyer and Shannon Hale, the author of the novel Austenland, "It was amazing to have three girls who have a lot in common; we're friends and we decided, 'Let's go make a movie.'" As for shooting a film with a female protagonist (Keri Russell), Hess explained, "I just wanted to do a movie for the girls. ... I love making movies about dorky boys, but there's a lot of dorky girls out there too." When I asked her why she wanted to direct, Hess said, bluntly, "I love the control, I love the power, I'm never going back."
Catherine Hardwicke is the ultimate example of a female director who transitioned from the indie world into the studio world. After her gritty 2003 film thirteen screened at Sundance and won her a Best Director award, Hardwicke went on to helm such studio features as Twilight, which grossed $392 million worldwide on a budget of $37 million, and launched a multi-billion dollar franchise.
And yet even with the success of that movie, subsequent Twilights were all given to male directors. After some frustration with the studio system, Hardwicke told me that she is making her next project as an independent film. "I hope that people are going to start to get excited about female power and the fact that 51 percent of the audience is women," she said. "We need more voices out there."
The next step for the independent film community may be to make a targeted effort to encourage women to direct the kinds of genres—sci-fi, thriller, war, action, fantasy, comic book/graphic novel—that would lead to more directing opportunities on Hollywood blockbusters. With women playing a greater variety of roles in the real world, it seems that compelling female-directed movies can be made in a broader range of genres without compromising women's unique voices.
This approach has certainly worked for Kathryn Bigelow. Even without industry awards recognition, her war film Zero Dark Thirty has successfully taken on some of the biggest issues of the day and even critics of the film's perceived politics admit that it is one of the best films of the year. Bigelow herself, who began as an independent filmmaker, appears to relish having her work spark so much debate. As Bigelow asserts in her recent Time cover story "Holding up a contemporary mirror is more attractive to me now than ever."
The movies are not just a mirror of reality—they shape reality, as well. For female directors today, the independent film world has become a proving ground, one that can transform mainstream Hollywood and shape the images, values, and stories that we live by.