Sidebar -- "Running Scared", January 1997
Jonathan Rauch Responds
The Atlantic's Ryan Nally recently asked Rauch to discuss the role of special-
interest groups in American politics.
Anthony King agrees with the argument in your book
Demosclerosis that the American system suffers greatly from the excessive
power of special-interest groups. What, if anything, can the government do to
break -- or even just weaken -- the vice-grip of these groups?
You can't break the grip but you can weaken it somewhat. For one, you can use
trade to expose domestic groups to foreign competition. Second, you can create a big
package of changes that will sweep away
deeply entrenched groups. There has to be national leadership coming from the
President in order for this to happen. We did this successfully in the 1986 Tax
Reform under Reagan. It seems to be getting harder to do, but the idea is that
if you push a bunch of special-interest groups over the cliff at once and produce
enough of a reward for the taxpayers, citizens may be willing to let you do it. But
it takes great ambition. The basic answer is that you treat this problem but don't cure
What explains the recent growth of the special interests' power and
Remember that these things are as old as democracy. James Madison
wrote about special-interest groups in The Federalist Papers. He called it the
"power of faction." There's nothing new about this. What is new is that
in the last thirty to thirty-five years there has been an astounding proliferation
and sophistication of these groups. What was initially just informal groups of
people coming to Washington to ask for things is now a huge
and rapidly growing professional sector.
A lot of things have caused this. One is technology, of course, which makes
communication and organization much easier. Another is Washington itself, which has
become much bigger and has therefore attracted entrepreneurial interests. A third is
the maturation process of a democracy in which economic theory gives us good reason
to expect the strengthening of special-interest groups. Lastly, the
reforms of the 1970s opened up Congress so that instead of a few powerful
people receiving lobbyists we had lots of independent entrepreneurs doing business.
We suddenly had a huge bidding war, with 535 people vying for campaign
money from special-interest groups.
King mentions that the Vietnam War and Watergate were crucial in increasing
the strength of political-action groups. Would you agree?
There's something to that, but I think it is a fairly minor factor. What
Vietnam and Watergate did was help destroy the public's confidence in
government itself. But I think the institutional forces that I mentioned are
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