A once-valued skill has fallen by the wayside -- but our kids will need it even more than we do.
You probably have a pretty good idea how well your teenager can write, how good her reading comprehension is, and how easily she solves math problems. But here's a question to consider: Can your high-school student extract the meaning from a chart or graph?
Okay, let's stipulate that your kid probably can. What do you think about your neighbor's kid? Do you think he knows how to read a visual display of quantitative information? There's a very good chance he can't. And that's a problem.
The education world seems always aflutter with controversies over how best to teach students to write or what's the most effective way to teach mathematics. While these are important matters, involving real problems, there are other gaps and failings that also deserve attention.
I taught for the past 10 years in an independent high school for girls. Not long after starting there, I discovered that many of my students had limited ability to derive and summarize the main message from fairly straightforward charts and graphs like this one, comparing the crime rate to unemployment in the US over a twenty-year period:
A Collaboration Between Good and Part & Parcel
When I raised the subject at a faculty meeting one day, my comment elicited wide agreement. The ensuing discussion revealed that kids handled these kinds of tasks well in science and math classes, but the skills didn't seem to transfer over to other subject areas such as the social sciences and history.
Now, this problem is surely not universal. There are certainly students who can handle these cognitive tasks well in any context. But an alarming percentage cannot. (I have not been able to find hard numbers on this and will be grateful to anyone who can provide them.)
Part of the explanation, I suspect, is a simple aversion on the part of many to anything that smacks of math. I know; I'm in that category. I'm one of those people whose skills at extracting information from graphs and charts are stunted because I avoided developing them, preferring to rely on the accompanying text to tell me the important points I needed to know from a complicated table or graph.
Another obstacle is that we all find it harder to extract meaning from graphs and charts in subject areas new to us. One study I found indicated that this is a widespread problem, showing that even professional scientists' abilities to interpret graphs "are highly contextual and are a function of their familiarity with the phenomena to which the graph pertains."
Still another reason for the difficulty some students have with visual displays of quantitative data is that many of the old standbys -- pie charts, line graphs, dot charts and point plots, histograms, pictographs, etc. -- are getting more complicated and are being supplemented, if not supplanted, by a mindboggling array of complicated and sophisticated new graphic forms, like this network diagram, showing the relationships, based on data about recorded meetings, between UK governmental ministers and British lobbyists:
These graphics are obviously the result of technological advancements, which make it easier to produce more complex graphs. (See Tony Hirst's description of the computer work involved in producing the diagram above.)
Newspapers and magazines carry more graphic representations of data than they used to, and the Web is full of this stuff. Another example:
The New York Times regularly provides good examples of these cutting-edge graphics. See this interactive chart, for example, which shows how swing states have shifted between the Republican and Democratic parties over the years.