The Obama Administration has spent $4.6 billion overhauling failing schools. But critics say the investment might not pay off in the long run.
The federal School Improvement Grant program is one of the most aggressive -- and, at $4.6 billion and counting, arguably one of the most expensive -- investments ever made toward fixing the nation's most struggling schools. But is it working?
The existing grant program had been modestly funded until 2009, when it was revamped as a centerpiece of President Obama's education reform initiative. The overhauled program received an unprecedented $3 billion infusion in stimulus dollars through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Another $1.6 billion has since followed. SIG money is now earmarked for schools with the weakest student achievement, with the funding prioritized by both need and a willingness to implement reforms.
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U.S. Education Secretary Arne Duncan announced earlier this week that the first-year data suggest student achievement is on an upswing at campuses that have received a slice of the SIG pie. He reported that at nearly 60 percent of SIG schools, more students are demonstrating proficiency in reading and math. At nearly a quarter of those schools, the improvement in math is in the double digits, and close to 20 percent of schools saw double-digit gains in reading.
At the same time, state officials -- surveyed by the Center on Education Policy for two new reports -- say they believe the federal initiative is helping schools improve the quality of instruction for students. However, those same officials also have concerns that because not every eligible school ultimately received a grant, many campuses are unable to provide more intensive services and programs for their equally needy students.
As Duncan pointed out at Monday's Build A Grad Nation Summit in Washington, D.C., more data and more time are necessary before the SIG effort can be evaluated fully. However, "At the heart of all these successes are teachers and school leaders who are excited about the prospect of change," Duncan said.
"Nobody should expect all of these school turnarounds to be successful; in the business world, turnarounds most often fail."
The new CEP reports were based on interviews with Title I directors (the state education officials responsible for overseeing the implementation of the federal grants) in 46 states, rather than quantitative data such as state report cards or student test results. CEP researchers also focused closely on SIG efforts in Idaho, Maryland and Michigan for a separate report.
"These are the people following the individual schools, looking at the test results, and making a judgment about whether or not they're seeing progress in the implementation of the (SIG) models," said Diane Rentner, CEP's deputy director. "Yes, we are talking about people's perceptions, but they are highly informed perceptions."
To qualify for the funds, districts must follow one of the approved blueprints: "turnaround," which requires replacing the principal and at least 50 percent of the staff and starting over with a new philosophy; "transformation," in which significant changes are made to instructional programs and professional development; "restart," in which the school's management is turned over to an outside operator such as a charter school; and closure, with students provided transfers to more successful schools.
School closures account for just 2 percent of SIG grants, according to the U.S. Department of Education, and only 4 percent of campuses opted for the restart model. Another 20 percent of schools went with the turnaround model.