Mash-Up Nation: How Genes Built America

wheelwright-small.jpgIt's hard to tell what Jeff Wheelwright's new book is about by glancing at the cover. The title, The Wandering Gene and the Indian Princesssuggests a story about ethnic identity. But the book is also a history of Colorado's San Luis valley, a primer on Jewish genes, and a true tale about a young Jehovah's Witness with breast cancer. Elie Dolgin, writing for The Forward, called the book a "mash-up," and Wheelwright doesn't disagree, though he prefers to think of it as a work of cubism: blocks of science and storytelling assembled into interlocking chapters. 

Wheelwright, former science editor for Life magazine, lives with his wife on the central coast of California. We spoke over the telephone about the characters in his book and the puzzle of ethnicity in America.

Your book is about an ethnic group in the Southwest with a very colorful history. How unique is their story?

The people I write about are called Hispanos. That means that they have a longer tenure in the United States than recent immigrants. But if you look at Hispanics everywhere, they're a mix of just about everything in the world, except Asian. Puerto Ricans, for example, have a lot of African in them. So it's all about how finely you want to peel the onion.

How did these descendents of American Indians and Catholic settlers end up with a Jewish gene?

I think it's because of the period when the colonists came to the area. New Mexico is the longest-running extant colony in the United States. That means it was colonized the closest in time to the 1492 expulsions. For the Jews and Crypto-Jews who left Spain and went to the New World, New Mexico would have been one of the earlier places they would have gone. California, where I live, was colonized by the Spanish 200 years later, so there were 200 more years for things to get diluted, both genetically and culturally.

You write that Jews, more than any other ethnic group, have been willing to have their genes studied and their traits defined. That's sort of surprising, considering the sinister fascination Nazis had with Jewish biology. 

And that point is certainly always discussed. But I think the willingness came from a medical need to get a handle on Jewish genetic disorders, starting with Tay Sachs. Also, the people doing the research are largely Jewish scientists and doctors. So they're going right down the street in their own communities saying, "We think we can figure out how to eliminate Tay Sachs. Won't you volunteer?"

Besides, if you're a good Jew, you're trying to repair the world. I learned a bit about Judaism when my daughter married a Jewish man and converted. From what I understand, if you're a faithful Jew, you're not only motivated to figure out the genetic disorders of your own tribe. You also want to provide information that could help all of humankind.

One of the characters in your book remarks that genetics are an equalizer across socioeconomic lines. What does he mean by that?

When you have a country of immigrants, the world's peoples come here for whatever reason and bring their genetic baggage with them. We all call ourselves Americans, but what's in our particular genetic suitcases? You end up with all these genes that just happened to find their way here. So you have this group in the rural Southwest dealing with this medical issue and translating it through own cultural background. Yet that same piece of DNA is active in social circles that include highly educated, sophisticated urban people.

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Jennie Rothenberg Gritz is a senior editor at The Atlantic, where she edits digital features.

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