Behind the Mosque Controversy, a Rich History of Both Coexistence and Conflict

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Over the past two months, the planned construction of a Muslim cultural center in the vicinity of the World Trade Center site has become the fulcrum of an acrimonious debate about religion, freedom of expression, and the place of Islam in the United States. You would have had to be living off-the-grid somewhere not to have noticed the hundreds of opinion pieces, thousands of blogs, and considerable airtime on television and radio. As characterized by Newt Gingrich, the planned center is no less than the latest chapter in a war of civilizations: "America is experiencing an Islamist cultural-political offensive designed to undermine and destroy our civilization."

By now, defenders of the plan have made clear that the proposed "Cordoba House" (also known as Park51) isn't a mosque per se; it is a cultural center that would include a prayer room. It is modeled after the YMCA or various Jewish Community Centers throughout the United States, complete with a theater, recreational facilities, and day care. It is the brainchild of Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf and his wife Daisy Khan, who have been active in numerous interfaith initiatives for many years, both of whom live and work in New York City. Rauf - who during much of the controversy was touring the Persian Gulf sponsored by the U.S. government to promote cooperation - said of his initiative "I can assure that whatever we do will increase harmony and peace and well being, both within our city, our community, our nation and the world."

Yet in spite of these soothing words and Rauf's own history of moderation, many remain hostile and are unlikely to be swayed. You would think from the tenor of the opposition that Park51 was being sponsored by al-Qaeda and is slated to include a weapons lab along with a radical madrassa. Describing it as a "beach head," as many opponents have, casts the center as the vanguard of a new wave of Muslim armies that used to assail the Western (aka Christian) world at regular intervals over the course of a thousand years from the death of Muhammad in 622 through the last failed Turkish siege of Vienna in 1683. Perhaps most striking about the vehement opposition to the center is the degree to which history is used as proof of ill-intent. It's often - and correctly - said about American culture that historical memory is scant, but in the case of Islam, it is surprisingly robust.

But it is also distressingly selective. Yes, there is a thousand year history of Muslim conquests of Christian lands. There is also a more recent history of conflict between Arab countries and the state of Israel, and the acts of terror perpetuated by those who claim the mantle of Islam to justify their deeds. The attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 seared American consciousness and are the immediate source of the emotional outrage that has greeted the planned center so close to the site of those brutal attacks. The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have only augmented the intensity of these feelings.

Defenders of the project have called on American traditions of live-and-let-live, religious freedom, and diversity. They have also warned that the backlash against Park51 risks becoming a propaganda victory for al-Qaeda et al and used as proof that Americans really do hate Muslims. But in truth, the intense opposition draws from a deeper well than American history or 9/11. It taps into a Western meme familiar in Europe and woven through American culture, a visceral memory of war and conflict reified by cultural echoes of crusades and scimitars that we all seem to share.

But the history of relations between Muslims, Christians and Jews over the centuries is more than a litany of violence, discrimination and atrocities. To remember that history isn't to invalidate the very real episodes of violence and hatred but a history composed only of those is like reading every other page of a book. It so distorts and loses context that it becomes a false reading of the past, even if the particulars are quite true.

Take medieval Cordoba, which is the inspiration for the project. Ruled by a succession of Muslim dynasties between the 9th and 13th centuries, Iberian Cordoba was hailed as a center of religious toleration and intellectual and artistic creativity. Muslims, Christians and Jews employed by the ruling families translated works of ancient Greek philosophy and mathematics and thereby kept the wisdom of antiquity alive when it had all but disappeared in the Christian world. The "People of the Book" who compromised the three monotheisms and shared a common set of biblical stories lived not just in relative harmony. The interactions and co-mingling led to some of the great thinkers and philosophers, including Moses Maimonides, and Ibn Arabi in the 12th century. When Imam Rauf named his initiative, it was this legacy of Cordoba that he had in mind.

Critics have rightly pointed out that the rose-tinted vision of multicultural toleration elides the less noble moments in Cordoban history and Islam. Muslim Spain in the 11th century was marked by a pogrom against the Jews of nearby Grenada and by a succession of orthodox, theologically rigid dynasties in the 11th and 12th century that cohered to fight the Christian states of Leon and Castile in the northern part of modern-day Spain. Yes, Maimonides was born into this milieu, but he then fled to Egypt to serve at the court of Saladin because of fears of persecution. Throughout these centuries, while the majority Christian population was tolerated, Christians and Jews were decidedly second-class citizens, subject to a tax (as they were elsewhere in the Muslim world) and unable to ascend to the highest ranks of power.

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Zachary Karabell is Head of Global Strategy at Envestnet, a financial services firm, and author of The Leading Indicators: A Short History of the Numbers that Rule Our World. More

At River Twice Research, Karabell analyzes economic and political trends. He is also a senior advisor for Business for Social Responsibility. Previously, he was executive vice president, head of marketing and chief economist at Fred Alger Management, a New York-based investment firm, and president of Fred Alger and Company, as well as portfolio manager of the China-U.S. Growth Fund, which won a five-star designation from Morningstar. He was also executive vice president of Alger's Spectra Funds, which launched the $30 million Spectra Green Fund based on the idea that profit and sustainability are linked. Educated at Columbia, Oxford, and Harvard, where he received his Ph.D., he is the author of several books, including Superfusion: How China and America Became One Economy and Why the World's Prosperity Depends on It (2009), The Last Campaign: How Harry Truman Won the 1948 Election, which won the Chicago Tribune Heartland Award, and Peace Be Upon You: The Story of Muslim, Christian, and Jewish Coexistence (2007), which examined the forgotten legacy of peace among the three faiths. In 2003, the World Economic Forum designated Karabell a "Global Leader for Tomorrow." He sits on the board of the World Policy Institute and the New America Foundation and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He is a regular commentator on national news programs, such as CNBC and CNN, and has written for The Wall Street Journal, Newsweek, Time, The Washington Post, The New Republic, The Los Angeles Times, The New York Times, and Foreign Affairs.

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