Working Smart for the Money

A new study (PDF) from the Bureau of Labor Statistics provides important insight on states where workers toil the longest hours and make the most money. The study by Dante DeAntonio uses data from the Current Employment Statistics -- a monthly survey of more than 400,000 U.S. business establishments -- to provide estimates for employment, hours, and earnings for all 50 U.S. states. Catherine Rampell summarized some key findings of the study earlier this week over at Economix.

Take a look at the map of the hardest-working states in terms of hours worked. Nevada tops the list with an average of 37 hours per week. Wyoming, Louisiana, Texas, Kentucky, and Alabama all average more than 36 hours per week. At the opposite end of the spectrum are Montana, the Dakotas, Hawaii, and New Hampshire which average less than 33 hours per week.


Now look at the map of the highest-earning states in terms of average hourly earnings. The top earner is D.C. followed by Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Washington, Alaska, California, and Maryland. The lowest-earning states are South Dakota, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and West Virginia.


What's most striking is there's virtually no overlap at all between the two maps.

So, I decided to take a closer look at some key economic and demographic factors that might be behind the variation in state earnings and working hours. With the help of Charlotta Mellander, we ran a series of scatter-graphs and performed a simple correlation analysis. I remind readers of the usual qualifiers: our analysis is based on correlations which point only to associations between variables and do not identify causality. Still, some patterns are striking.

First and foremost, we find a total lack of  correlation between hours worked and earnings across the 50 states -- there was no statistical significance at all for the correlation between these two variables.

Second, we find that when it comes to state earning power, working smarter trumps working harder across the board.

The connection between human capital and economic development has been theorized and documented empirically by economists like Gary Becker, Robert Barro, Robert Lucas, Edward Glaeser, and many others. Human capital (that is, the percentage of a state's workforce with a bachelor's degree and above) is closely associated with earnings -- the correlation being .65. We ran a scatter-plot for these two variables. Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, Washington, and New Jersey all stand way above the line, while Mississippi, Montana, and the Dakotas fall far below it.


Earnings are also closely associated with the kinds of work that states specialize in. The correlation between creative class jobs and hourly earnings is .79. The line on the scatter-graph runs quite steeply upward. Clearly, the transition to smarter, more knowledge-based state economies has a big effect on earnings levels.


On the other hand, state earnings are negatively correlated with blue-collar, working-class jobs (-.67). The slope of the line is steeply negative. Interestingly enough, industrial states like Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, and Indiana all stand above the line. Below the line are states like Mississippi, South Dakota, Oklahoma, Idaho, and West Virginia.

Presented by

Richard Florida is Co-founder and Editor at Large of CityLab.com and Senior Editor at The Atlantic. He is director of the Martin Prosperity Institute at the University of Toronto and Global Research Professor at NYU. More

Florida is author of The Rise of the Creative ClassWho's Your City?, and The Great Reset. He's also the founder of the Creative Class Group, and a list of his current clients can be found here

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