The Perils of Primacy

When too much power means not enough security

In recent years special attention has been brought to bear on new and nontraditional dangers posed by weapons of mass destruction—notably, the acquisition of nuclear weapons by ever more countries, and the specter of nuclear terrorism. As William Langewiesche's article in this issue demonstrates, these are troubling developments, and the right way to deal with them is not at all clear.

But the news media and the nation's leaders have almost entirely ignored a startling and perilous development in the old sphere of nuclear confrontation, the one involving nuclear-armed major powers: the U.S. threat to the stability of deterrence. The past fifteen years have seen a profound and dangerous shift in the nuclear balance. For most of the Cold War the steadiness of superpower relations rested on the fact that both Moscow and Washington had nuclear retaliatory forces capable of surviving an enemy attack. Both knew that a nuclear war was unwinnable—an attack by one would surely produce a devastating riposte by the other. During this period both sides constantly and meticulously assessed the balance of terror and devoted enormous intellectual energy and sums of money to recalibrating it in response to even the slightest perceived alterations (a fact of which, as an analyst at the RAND Corporation in the late 1980s and early 1990s, I was very much aware). The doctrine known as mutually assured destruction (MAD) entailed a continuous state of readiness, not to mention nervousness, but it bought decades of superpower peace.

Today, however, one country—the United States—appears to be on the verge of establishing true nuclear primacy. Ironically, America's nuclear dominance may dramatically diminish its security.

Defense analysts have grown increasingly nervous about the convergence of several strategic developments. In "The End of Mutual Assured Destruction?," a brilliant and sobering study of military analysis that is being prepared for publication in an academic journal, Keir A. Lieber, a scholar at Notre Dame, and Daryl G. Press, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania and a consultant to the Defense Department and to RAND, have trenchantly surveyed the trends that are troubling the experts. The first is the precipitous erosion of Russian nuclear capabilities. Compared with its forces in 1990, Moscow has 55 percent fewer intercontinental ballistic missiles, 39 percent fewer strategic bombers, and 80 percent fewer ballistic-missile submarines, or SSBNs (the component of a nuclear arsenal most likely to survive a first strike). Moscow itself has stated that its nuclear forces will decline by an additional 35 percent in the coming years, but many experts believe the total Russian arsenal could shrink even more, from about 3,800 strategic warheads today to as few as 500 (the United States currently has more than 5,200). More important than this quantitative reduction, though, has been the even steeper qualitative decline. Owing to financial constraints, Russia can't ensure unbroken monitoring of American ICBM fields, and can't plug the holes in its missile-warning networks that render it blind to attacks from U.S. submarines in launch areas in the Pacific. Maintenance, supply, and training deficiencies afflict Russia's nuclear forces generally and its submarines most crucially. A viable Russian deterrent demands that a number of SSBNs be at sea at any given time and that they successfully evade the U.S. attack submarines that stalk them. But in fact most Russian SSBNs must now remain pierside—the Russians weren't able to conduct any patrols in 2002 and could carry out only two in 2004. This makes the SSBNs highly vulnerable to a U.S. first strike, and it means that the skills Russian SSBN crews need in order to elude U.S. subs have been greatly vitiated (most Russian crews haven't been on patrol in years). Largely for these reasons former commanders of Russia's ballistic-missile fleet warned as long ago as 1998 that their supposedly invulnerable submarines would be detected and destroyed in a conflict with the United States.

Equally noteworthy has been the sluggish pace of modernization in the nuclear forces of China, the country likeliest to emerge as the United States' most formidable "peer competitor" (to employ Pentagon-speak). Whatever Russia's vulnerabilities, China's are far more pronounced. Beijing has no operational SSBNs. Moscow's arsenal contains approximately 800 missiles that could reach the continental United States; Beijing's contains about eighteen. Most important, the military personnel devoted to China's nuclear forces have nothing like the training, experience, and institutional history of even Russia's—let alone America's, who have been training and preparing for nuclear war for well over half a century.

But whereas Russia's nuclear capabilities have decayed, and China's have remained largely static, America's have become far more lethal. Although the U.S. arsenal has diminished in size, it has also—reflecting the seemingly exponential progress of the U.S. military's technological revolution—grown both immensely more accurate and immensely more powerful. The Navy, for instance, has refitted its entire SSBN fleet to carry the new, highly accurate Trident II, a missile whose already stunning precision has been nearly continuously upgraded. The Navy has also deployed 400 W88 warheads, which are nearly five times as powerful as the Trident II's Cold War—era warhead. Minuteman III ICBMs have been retrofitted with much more accurate guidance systems and higher-yield warheads.

These improvements are inconsistent with the aim of simply deterring an adversary's nuclear attack—a goal that would require merely a "countervalue" strike on the enemy's cities. They are necessary for a disarming "counterforce" strike, aimed at pre-empting a nuclear attack—and hence winning a nuclear war. Similarly, the avionics upgrades to the B-2 stealth bombermake sense only if that plane is to be directed against the most technologically sophisticated peer competitor, not against a "rogue state" such as Iran or North Korea. Washington's intentions can't, of course, be definitely determined, but as a RAND report on the future roles of the U.S. nuclear arsenal concluded in 2003, "What the planned force appears best suited to provide beyond the needs of traditional deterrence is a preemptive counterforce capability against Russia and China. Otherwise, the numbers and the operating procedures simply do not add up" (emphasis in original).

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Benjamin Schwarz is the former literary and national editor for The Atlantic. He is writing a book about Winston Churchill for Random House. More

His first piece for the magazine, "The Diversity Myth," was a cover story in 1995. Since then he's written articles and reviews on a startling array of subjects from fashion to the American South, from current fiction to the Victorian family, and from international economics to Chinese restaurants. Schwarz oversees and writes a monthly column for "Books and Critics," the magazine's cultural department, which under his editorship has expanded its coverage to include popular culture and manners and mores, as well as books and ideas. He also regularly writes the "leader" for the magazine. Before joining the Atlantic's staff, Schwarz was the executive editor of World Policy Journal, where his chief mission was to bolster the coverage of cultural issues, international economics, and military affairs. For several years he was a foreign policy analyst at the RAND Corporation, where he researched and wrote on American global strategy, counterinsurgency, counterterrorism, and military doctrine. Schwarz was also staff member of the Brookings Institution. Born in 1963, he holds a B.A. and an M.A. in history from Yale, and was a Fulbright scholar at Oxford. He has written for a variety of newspapers and magazines, including The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Los Angeles Times, Foreign Policy, The National Interest, and The Nation. He has lectured at a range of institutions, from the U.S. Air Force Special Operations School to the Center for Social Theory and Comparative History. He won the 1999 National Book Critics Circle award for excellence in book criticism.

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