Flashbacks September 2005

A Century of Cartoons

Articles by Walt Kelly and others on the Yellow Kid, superhero comics, Art Spiegelman, and more

This month the new Center for Cartoon Studies, a graduate program for cartoonists, will open its doors, offering such classes as "Introduction to Graphic Narratives" and "Survey of the Drawn Story," taught by visiting comics luminaries like Alison Bechdel, Jack Kamen, and Craig Thompson. As some see it, this solidifies the standing of cartoonists as serious artists rather than as dedicated grubbers and amusers of children. Indeed, recent years have been good to cartooning. The Pulitzer Prize that honored Art Spiegelman's Maus: A Survivor's Tale in 1992 not only made it acceptable for adults to like comics, but also made the claim that comics are an art form in themselves, capable of evoking powerful adult emotions. In 2001 Michael Chabon's epic novel about the golden age of comics, The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier and Clay also won a Pulitzer Prize, further enhancing cartooning's status as a subject worthy of adult consideration. And themes from the comics and graphic novels are increasingly being given sophisticated treatment in other mediums as well; the 2003 movie American Splendor, for example, turned a thoughtful eye to the people behind the funnies, expanding the genre of artist biographies.

From the archives:

Interviews: "Drawing Without a Licence" (November 1997)
Cartoonist and illustrator Edward Sorel talks about his career, his work, and the state of the art today.

Such cultural legitimacy would have been beyond imagining for most early cartoonists. Richard Outcault, a newspaper illustrator who began his career illustrating science articles in Joseph Pulitzer's New York World, created the yellow-nightshirted imp who in 1895 would become the popular comic strip character the Yellow Kid. When William Randolph Hearst hired Outcault away from the World in 1896, Pulitzer hired a substitute artist and continued to publish the comic. The rivalry gave the Yellow Press its name, and demonstrated the popular appeal of Outcault's marriage of art and words. The Katzenjammer Kids, a pair of rambunctious twins who were "fellow warriors in the battle against any form of authority," followed the Yellow Kid into the world two years later, and the age of comics had definitively begun. Critical examinations of the new form followed close on the heels of these riotous cartoon scamps. Despite these comics' popularity, they were scorned by many as low-brow.

In August 1906, The Atlantic published Ralph Bergengren's condemnation of newspaper comics in an article titled "The Humor of the Colored Supplement" (so called because of the colored ink used to print the strips). His complaint was that the comics were coarse and unsophisticated in their attempts at humor—that "they unite vigorously, as if driven by a perverse and cynical intention, to prove the American sense of humor a thing of national shame and degradation." Rather than produce fresh characters,

The very element of variety has been obliterated by the creation of types,—a confusing medley of impossible countrymen, mules, goats, German-Americans and their irreverent progeny, specialized children with a genius for annoying their elders, white-whiskered elders with a genius for playing practical jokes on their grandchildren, policemen, Chinamen, Irishmen, negroes, inhuman conceptions of the genus tramp, boy inventors whose inventions invariably end in causing somebody to be mirthfully spattered with paint or joyously torn to pieces by machinery, bright boys with a talent for deceit, laziness, or cruelty, and even the beasts of the jungle dehumanized to the point of practical joking.

And there seemed to be no mishaps or misdeeds cartoonists had not already explored.

Somebody is always hitting somebody else with a club; somebody is always falling downstairs, or out of a balloon, or over a cliff, or into a river, a barrel of paint, a basket of eggs, a convenient cistern, or a tub of hot water. The comic cartoonists have already exhausted every available substance into which one can fall, and are compelled to fall themselves into a veritable ocean of vain repetition. They have exhausted everything by which one can be blown up. They have exhausted everything by which one can be knocked down or run over. And if the victim is never actually killed in these mirthful experiments, it is obviously because he would then cease to be funny—which is very much the point of view of the Spanish Inquisition, the cat with a mouse, or the American Indian with a captive.

Despite his overwhelming disapproval of the medium, however, even Bergengren relented somewhat, admitting in his final paragraph that not all comics were without literary merit. He singled out the now-classic "Little Nemo in Slumberland" for special praise, commending its creator Windsor McKay as "a man of genuine pantomimic humor, charming draughtsmanship, and an excellent decorative sense of color, who has apparently studied his medium and makes the best of it."

Comics had changed by September, 1942, when The Atlantic published Lovell Thompson's reflection on the question "How Serious Are The Comics?" While the ethnic stereotypes Bergengren derided had not vanished from comic strips and books, they had been joined, and in some cases replaced by masked crime-fighters, superheroes, and visitors from the future. Thompson took the chance to compare the current generation's favorite comics with those of his generation, and argued that parents would always disapprove of the comics their children enjoyed. "I have often wondered why our parents forbade us such comics as Buster Brown," he mused, "who lived in the days of Alexander's Ragtime Band and the leg-‘o-mutton sleeve. [Buster] was a moral if misguided little boy. His virtues are clear when you compare him with a modern killer of fiends such as the Batman, a fiend's fiend. In retrospect, he looks like Little Lord Fauntleroy." Thompson theorized that the comics of any given age prefigure the future and help each generation of young people come to terms with it. "Man has always feared change," he observed. "That is why our parents were instinctively against Buster."

The parents of 1942 were now warily eyeing a new generation of comics—a cartoon world that seemed to be all about machines, combat, and self-preservation. Parents, he suggested, should not try to keep their children away from such reading, because those complex, futuristic stories represented "the dangers [the contemporary child] accepts." He warned that contemporary parents, on the other hand, might be well advised to stay away from such disturbing fare.

Only the men of tomorrow can take it. Do not try to deal with the world of Flash Gordon. Don't try to get around with Zatara the magician, with Captain Marvel, or with the Shadow, or the Flame, or the Torch, or the Phantom, or Toro, or Lightning, or Captain America…Don't slip into the new dark age with Prince Valiant. Even Superman can hardly take that stuff. Leave the world of tomorrow to the men of tomorrow, but remember that the men of tomorrow are the children of today.

As for himself, Thompson declared, "I can take it if the children can." But he added a caveat—"There's only one thing that worries me, and that is this: How will these children face their children, who will be the men of the day after tomorrow? After Captain America—what?"

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Alyssa Rosenberg was recently an intern for The Atlantic Monthly.

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