Wealth of Nations April 2005

Shock and Awe Come to the World Bank

The Bush administration's critics at home and abroad are astounded, scandalized, and reeling from the decision to name Paul Wolfowitz the next head of the World Bank.

When President Bush named Paul Wolfowitz as the next head of the World Bank, he threw the global economics commentariat into extraordinary confusion. Possibly that was the idea. With Iraq quieting down a little, maybe someone in the White House was getting bored. Perhaps the president's advisers felt that it was somebody else's turn for shock and awe—and sending Wolfowitz to the World Bank would be a laugh, if nothing else.

If the idea was to give Bush-bashers a collective nervous breakdown, it worked. The administration's critics at home and abroad are astounded, scandalized, reeling: Many do look as if a daisy cutter just exploded nearby. Still, one cannot help wondering, if causing such havoc was not the main idea (or not the only idea), then what was?

A lot of development-policy heavyweights are at a loss to say. They are still literally sputtering with rage. Joseph Stiglitz, a professor of economics at Columbia University, a best-selling author, and a former chief economist at the Bank, considers the appointment an outrage. Like many others on the left, he sees Wolfowitz as the architect of America's selfish and illegal war against Iraq and, more generally, as the intellectual champion of aggressive American unilateralism in world affairs. How can such a man be expected to lead a peace-loving, green-tinged, NGO-embracing multilateral development bank? Stiglitz, rarely given to understatement, predicts anti-Bank riots in the streets of developing countries, an upsurge in anti-American terrorism, and the possible fall of governments that continue to do business with the Bank.

Only slightly less hysterical is Jeffrey Sachs, also of Columbia University, who is a tireless adviser to poor countries across the globe, the principal author of the United Nations' new mammoth study on foreign aid and development, and—not least—a close friend of Bono, who one also imagines is quite concerned about the new appointment. Sachs, like Stiglitz, believes that Wolfowitz is not remotely up to the job, and that the move, as they say, sends all the wrong signals to the developing world.

Putting renowned economists and their rock-star friends to one side, reactions elsewhere have expressed every possible permutation of comment. Wolfowitz will be bad for the Bank, because he will turn it into an instrument of American foreign policy. Alternatively, he will be good for the Bank, because he will turn it into an instrument of American foreign policy. Likewise, some development types are saying that he is a bad choice because he lacks relevant qualifications and experience in development economics and finance; whereas, others are saying that is exactly why he is a good choice—no outdated intellectual baggage to discard.

I have heard it argued that the move is a good thing because Wolfowitz will do less harm at the World Bank—where he will go native and turn into a die-cast development bureaucrat within six months—than at the Defense Department, where he has a say in sending armed forces to and fro and dropping bombs on people. More commentators, you might think, ought to be taking the converse line here too, deploring the move because the United States and its Defense Department need Wolfowitz far more than does a marginalized and anachronistic development bank. (The war on terror that began after 9/11 hasn't ended, has it?) Oddly enough, this is one line of criticism that one doesn't hear much.

Suppose the White House is right to believe that Wolfowitz can safely be spared from his job at the Defense Department. Will he be good for the Bank and good for the developing countries? Much as I would like to see him succeed in his new role, the odds are stacked against him.

The likeliest scenario is that he will indeed be absorbed and neutered by the Bank's all-suffocating bureaucracy. His lack of training and experience in development or finance—that much-cited ambassadorship to Indonesia is hardly worth mentioning—is a genuine problem in this regard, though not in the way most critics of the appointment seem to believe. Much of the development economics that Wolfowitz would have learned in years gone by, had he learned any, would now need to be unlearned, anyway. The problem is that Wolfowitz, so used to being an expert in his own field of operation, is now going to be a novice, surrounded by hundreds of people with more practical and theoretical knowledge than he has. It would take a monstrous ego, which Wolfowitz does not have, or a very clear vision of where he wants the Bank to go, which he presumably also lacks, to be unintimidated by that.

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