The Rogues of Academe

Making dictators an offer they can't refuse

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The repertoire of methods employed to rid nations of their undemocratic or loathsome rulers is at once familiar and limited. There is assassination, coup d'état, and war. There are economic sanctions. On the rare occasions when elections come into the picture, there is sometimes an international effort to ensure that the elections are fair.

Now Boston University is experimenting with a new approach—the Lloyd G. Balfour African Presidents in Residence Program. The idea, simply put, is that democratically elected African leaders might not be so prone to overstay their welcome as chief executives (or to keep meddling in local politics after leaving office) if they had a well-endowed university sinecure in the United States to look forward to. The first President-in-residence is Kenneth Kaunda, who served as the President of Zambia under less than democratic circumstances for twenty-seven years, but ultimately left office of his own accord when an election was held and he lost. Kaunda will receive a presumably generous stipend (the amount is undisclosed) and live in a Back Bay home overlooking the Charles River. Boston University will become the repository of his papers. Charles Stith, a former U.S. ambassador to Tanzania and the director of the university's African Presidential Archives and Research Center, told The Wall Street Journal, "It sends a message to some of these other folks who are reluctant to step aside that there are a set of options, and when they do the right thing, good things can happen."

The Balfour program has its eye on a number of future candidates, including Uganda's longtime President, Yoweri Museveni. According to newspaper accounts, officials at Boston University would especially welcome the chance to entice Robert Mugabe away from Zimbabwe, where his two-decade rule is spiraling toward catastrophe.

The management dilemma posed by the world's dictators is acute. Many of them simply don't want to leave office, and those who might want to leave often have no place to go where they will be safe from legal badgering and physical reprisals. I addressed the problem in this space some years ago (in the April 1992 Atlantic), proposing the establishment of an exclusive community called The Last Resort, a prosecution-free zone on an island in the Indian Ocean for dictators needing that one final incentive. Of course there were certain conditions (you could never leave), and the rules of the island were subtly designed to exact, over time, a terrible toll in retribution.

Boston University's scheme represents an important new development, one that reflects recent changes in expert thinking about penology. Prisons around the world are overcrowded, and analysts raise legitimate concerns about the long-term effects of prison culture on inmates. (Authorities in Kentucky, for instance, recently discovered that satanic worship services were being held under official auspices at the Green River Correctional Complex.) Inevitably, more thought is being given to ways in which certain kinds of malefactors can remain at large in society, albeit subject to strict rules and intensive monitoring. The Balfour program extends the concept to the international level, and the recruitment of Kenneth Kaunda (Charles Stith somewhat inaptly termed it a "coup") will give the effort a high profile.

The program also invites speculation about ways in which the general idea might be broadened, in order to match the diverse talents of some of our longest-serving world leaders. The State of Florida, for instance, found itself in need of a new secretary of state last summer, when Katherine Harris announced her resignation in order to seek a congressional seat. Harris, a Republican, was the Florida official who oversaw the recount effort in the aftermath of the 2000 presidential election, an effort that ultimately awarded the state (and the presidency) to George W. Bush. Surely the prospect of this sort of opportunity in state government would lure Aleksandr Lukashenko, the only dictator left in Europe, from his position as President of Belarus (the former Soviet Republic of Belorussia). Lukashenko is clearly up to the job: it has been alleged that during a crucial 1996 referendum he and his forces added a million paper ballots to the voting boxes at the last minute, bending the outcome to their will.

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Cullen Murphy

Says Cullen Murphy, "At The Atlantic we try to provide a considered look at all aspects of our national life; to write, as well, about matters that are not strictly American; to emphasize the big story that lurks, untold, behind the smaller ones that do get told; and to share the conclusions of our writers with people who count."

Murphy served as The Atlantic Monthly's managing editor from 1985 until 2005, when the magazine relocated to Washington. He has written frequently for the magazine on a great variety of subjects, from religion to language to social science to such out-of-the-way matters as ventriloquism and his mother's method for pre-packaging lunches for her seven school-aged children.

Murphy's book Rubbish! (1992), which he co-authored with William Rathje, grew out of an article that was written by Rathje, edited by Murphy, and published in the December, 1989, issue of The Atlantic Monthly. In a feature about the book's success The New York Times reported that the article "was nominated for a National Magazine Award in 1990 and became a runaway hit for The Atlantic Monthly, which eventually ran off 150,000 copies of it." Murphy's second book, Just Curious, a collection of his essays that first appeared in The Atlantic Monthly and Harper's, was published in 1995. His most recent book, The Word According to Eve: Women and The Bible in Ancient Times and Our Own, was published in 1998 by Houghton Mifflin. The book grew out of Murphy's August 1993 Atlantic cover story, "Women and the Bible."

Murphy was born in New Rochelle, New York, and grew up in Greenwich, Connecticut. He was educated at Catholic schools in Greenwich and in Dublin, Ireland, and at Amherst College, from which he graduated with honors in medieval history in 1974. Murphy's first magazine job was in the paste-up department of Change, a magazine devoted to higher education. He became an editor of The Wilson Quarterly in 1977. Since the mid-1970s Murphy has written the comic strip Prince Valiant, which appears in some 350 newspapers around the world.

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