The Bike-Helmet Law That Helped Trigger an Insurgency in Nigeria

On unintended consequences, and Boko Haram's murky origins
Nigerian security forces burn motorcycles at the demolished home of Boko Haram founder Mohammed Yusuf in the northern city of Maiduguri, on August 3, 2009. Yusuf was killed in police custody five days earlier. (Reuters/The Atlantic)

They came on motorbikes.

It seemed like a throwaway line in an Amnesty International report on Boko Haram's recent kidnapping of more than 200 schoolgirls in northeast Nigeria. One evening in mid-April, the NGO noted, a phalanx of shadowy, armed men on motorbikes arrived in the village of Gagilam, announcing their intention to target a girls' school in nearby Chibok.

But it wasn't just another detail in the investigation. Motorcycles have long been a trademark of the radical Islamist group—so much so that in 2011, the city of Maiduguri banned bikes to prevent militants from conducting drive-by assassinations.

And two years before that, a bike-helmet law, of all things, played a role in Boko Haram morphing into what we know it as today: an armed, al Qaeda-linked insurgency whose battles with security forces and violent operations have left thousands dead—including more than 100 just this week in a series of suspected Boko Haram attacks—and prompted the U.S. to dispatch troops to the region.


It's a largely forgotten episode: In January 2009, the Nigerian government began enforcing a law mandating that motorbike drivers and passengers—most controversially, operators of the country's freewheeling, ubiquitous motorcycle taxis—wear helmets. The authorities were responding to a serious public-health hazard; Nigeria's roads are among the least safe in the world, and by 2009 motorcycle crashes accounted for more than half of all road-traffic injuries.

Initially, news coverage of the regulation was lighthearted, and primarily focused on the advent of pumpkin helmets. Riders were worried about helmets casting magic spells over them or giving them lice, and some were taunting traffic police by covering their heads with dried pumpkin shells, painted pots, or rubber tires. "We are impounding their bikes and want to take them to court so they can explain why they think wearing a calabash is good enough for their safety," an exasperated Nigerian official told the BBC.

Motorcyclists in the Nigerian city of Kano (Reuters/Akintunde Akinleye)

But the government's bike-helmet drive soon took a far darker turn. In Maiduguri, the capital of the northeastern state of Borno, a sect led by the Muslim cleric Mohammed Yusuf was agitating for an Islamic state and railing against secular education. The group wasn't yet calling for the violent overthrow of the Nigerian government, but it was increasingly at odds with local authorities. Its members were occasionally arrested and intermittently skirmished with police.

On Thursday, June 11, however, the fragile modus vivendi between the group and the government began to crumble. Officers in an anti-robbery security unit known as "Operation Flush" detained several of Yusuf's followers, who were riding on motorbikes in a convoy to bury sect members who had died in an earlier automobile accident, and asked them why they weren't wearing helmets. "The sect members did not take kindly to the enquiry, which they thought was a provocation given that they were in a funeral procession," Nigeria's Daily Trust reported at the time. For reasons that remain unclear, the confrontation quickly escalated. Nigerian security forces opened fire, injuring 17 people.

Here's how officials at the U.S. embassy in Abuja described the developments in a June 12 cable released by WikiLeaks (Yusuf's sect wasn't yet widely referred to as Boko Haram):

The Islamic group's leader, Mohammed Yusuf, was in Kaduna at the time of the incident, but [the Mohammed Yusuf Islamic Movement] members reportedly met at their headquarters, the Ibn Taimiyya Mosque. According to Guardian Newspaper the Muslim cleric's followers have vowed to fight back.....

Comment: Post will continue to monitor the situation as there is a risk of additional violence in Maiduguri following Friday prayers. Additionally, if any of the wounded MYIM members should die, we believe the risk of violence would increase significantly, as the sect will likely retaliate. The fact that an anti-robbery task force chose to stop motorcyclists during a funeral procession for traffic violations and riding without helmets is curious, and suggests the possibility that the officers of Operation Flush were deliberately seeking to provoke the group. Mallam Mohammed Yusuf is often referred to as the spiritual leader of the Jama'at Hijra Wa Taqfir, also known as the "Nigerian Taliban" (and we believe that the MYIM is another name of the same organization), which has long had very tense relations with [government of Nigeria] security forces in the northeast of the country. Whatever the origin of this incident, it illustrates the prevailing tensions in the North, which can become violent at short notice.

The additional violence that the U.S. embassy feared didn't materialize immediately—but it didn't take long to arrive, either. Just over a month after the bike-helmet incident, police raided the home of a Boko Haram member, seizing bomb-making materials. Five days after that, Boko Haram militants attacked a police station in Bauchi State. In a matter of days, more than 700 people had died across northern Nigeria in a welter of tit-for-tat exchanges between Boko Haram and security forces, climaxing in the killing of Yusuf in police custody. The handful of Boko Haram members who survived briefly went underground, reemerging as an armed insurgency in 2010 under current leader Abubakar Shekau, Yusuf's former deputy.

In charting Boko Haram's origins in early August 2009, just days after the previous month's bloodbath, Isa Umar Gusau, writing for Nigeria's Sunday Trust, reflected on the significance of the bike-helmet episode in the radicalization of the group. The Nigerian security forces "believed that the group refused to wear helmets because they did not recognise the government," he explained. "Government neither sympathised with the victims [of the shooting] nor paid for their medication while there was no apology from police or any investigation. In an interview a few days later, Yusuf threatened a reprisal attack. There were feelers that the sect members were getting prepared and residents were scared."

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Uri Friedman is a senior associate editor at The Atlantic, where he oversees the Global Channel. He was previously the deputy managing editor at Foreign Policy.

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