The popular Russian talk show Let Them Talk is the Slavic version of Dr. Phil. On it, a shouty, flamboyant host invites people to air their grievances, usually prying tears from guests and viewers in the process.
In 2012, an episode on gay rights in Russia quickly devolved into a circus of myopia. One guest lamented that the basis of the family was being destroyed in Russia. Another helpfully suggested that gay people go “do it in the forests of the North.”
One of the few gay-rights defenders on the show was a soft-spoken St. Petersburg activist who retreated further into his chair each time someone referred to homosexuality as a “tragedy.” Another Russian gay activist joined the program by tele-link from Hamburg, and could barely stifle his glee at having left his homeland.
At one point, a bearded standard-bearer of the Russian Orthodox Church appeared and blessed the audience with a massive iron cross before taking a seat.
A middle-aged woman in the audience fretted that, “If I was sitting on public transportation with my grandson and saw two men kissing, what kind of example would that be for him?” She added that it would be unthinkable for anyone in her family to ever come out as gay.
Finally, another guest decided to stick up for the country’s homosexuals: “We must remember,” he said, “that as a rule gay people are very talented.”
Talk shows are never a good mirror of society, but in this case the participants’ sentiments reflect real conversations in Russia: Only 16 percent of Russians told the Pew Research Center that homosexuality should be accepted, the lowest number among the European countries surveyed.
The country’s 2013 law against “gay propaganda” has prompted protests and boycotts and doodles. Activists are now urging International Olympic Committee President Thomas Bach to make sure that no future Olympic host country harbors discriminatory policies against homosexuals.
It's tempting to chalk up Russia’s anti-gay push to pure hate. But the fears of the Let Them Talk audience hint at one of the most important roots of anti-gay legislation in Russia. Though some Russian extremists may want to literally extinguish gays, the law itself reflects an arch-conservative view of sexuality, particularly when it comes to children, that has gained traction there in recent years.
Throughout the fallout over the anti-gay law, Russian leaders have maintained that its only goal is to safeguard youth. The law itself only prohibits airing so-called “gay propaganda” around minors.
“Please do not touch the kids,” Dmitry Kozak, the Russian deputy prime minister overseeing the Olympics, said when asked about the law ahead of the winter games. Earlier, Russian President Vladimir Putin simply said: “Just leave kids alone, please.”
During the debate over the measure, conservative Russian policymakers regularly conflated homosexuality with pedophilia and its effects on children: "Children maimed by pedophiles jump out of windows, they take their own lives. Pedophilia is an attempt on a child's life!" cried one St. Petersburg lawmaker when a similar ban there passed in 2012.
And in a recent proposal, Russian legislators suggested broadening the law against “gay propaganda” to include all kinds of “propaganda” of sexual relations in front of minors, including a ban on “depicting or promoting sex” in front of children.
It’s true that protecting children makes a convenient excuse for all sorts of legalized prejudice, but Russia’s obsession with instilling traditional sexual mores goes back decades. In more recent years, a small, vocal group of conservative activists, many of whom are aligned with the Orthodox church, have been doing everything from shouting down proposals for sex education in schools, to pushing for restrictions on gay rights, to supporting the crackdown on protest collectives such as Pussy Riot.
To this day, Russian schools have no sex ed to speak of. No textbooks mention the word “condom,” and abortion is still one of the most common forms of birth control. Russia's children's ombudsman said last year that Russian teens can learn everything they need to know about love and sex from Russian literature.
Russian teens get information about contraception and STDs from search engines, or if they’re lucky enough to live near one, from a scattering of standalone “youth clinics” that operate independently of schools, according to Peter Meylakhs, an associate professor at the Internet Studies Lab in St. Petersburg’s Higher School of Economics and a research fellow at the Center for Independent Social Research.
When it comes to sexual health issues, “Russians, in comparison to European or North American countries, are not as advanced,” Meylakhs said. “It’s related to the vocal minority of parents pushing for morality and the people for Christian education who oppose sex ed.”
Russians have, somewhat intentionally, cultivated a sexpot reputation abroad. The country’s female Olympians recently posed in their underwear on a government site because, “Our Russian Olympic team defies stereotype that women in sport are just a heap of muscles and masculine shapes.” And of course, American movies brim with vaguely Eastern European love interests, all pouts and mispronounced “th”s.
But Russian policy, at least, is fairly prudish, having striven to protect traditional family values since the Stalin years. Information about sexuality in Soviet schools was limited to “family issues and marriage,” according to Lyubov Erofeeva, the director general of the Russian Association for Population and Development.
“In the Soviet era, it was all motivated by building a strong family and loving each other forever,” she told me. “It was about fairy tales that young people were fed by the adults. There was a specialized subject in the school curriculum devoted to family issues and marriage, but nothing about contraception. It was more about the young members of the Communist society and their role in building families.”