ISTANBUL -- The night private Ugur Kantar died in an Ankara military hospital, his father Aydin Kantar knew all too well who his son's killers were.
He also knew that he would never see them in jail, because the men who had ordered Ugur's torture - which lasted for three days and ended with Ugur in a coma, abandoned and handcuffed to a chair in the blinding Mediterranean sun - were high ranking military officers and effectively above the law.
Suicide rates are 2.5 times higher among conscripts than other Turkish males in the same age group.
Two years after his son's death, Aydin says the officers suspected in the incident are still no closer to facing trial, a bitter example of the thousands of unsettled rights abuses in NATO's second-largest army.
Work by activists in recent months has exposed a long list of foul play against conscripts in Turkey's 700,000-strong armed forces, including a tradition of physical abuse, rare but life-threatening torture, and a suicide epidemic which has claimed 965 lives in the last decade - more than the 601 troops killed fighting Kurdish separatists in the same period.
Criminal trials involving those incidents can drag on for years, laments Aydin, who says his son's case is still idling in a military court and that his family is "waiting for justice so we can begin to grieve."
That wait comes as Turkey's ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) has claimed major victories in improving civilian oversight of its military.
This May, the government is set to conclude a trial of top brass accused of planning to overthrow the moderate Islamist AKP government, for which state prosecutors have suggested life sentences for several key players -- a verdict once inconceivable in a country known for its untouchable military and history of army coups.
But as Ankara claims that the high-profile coup trial, known as the Ergenekon case, has improved civilian oversight of the military - and as critics call it a bid by the AKP to imprison innocent secular journalists and academics - the trial has camouflaged deeper reforms needed in the EU aspirant's military, argues Lale Kemal, a journalist who specializes in civil-military relations
"At heart, the Turkish army is a cold war era, conscription-based military that hasn't yet entered the 21st century," she said. "Its secretive culture allows very grave rights abuses, but amid the larger political battle, those concerns have remained the military's internal affairs."
Military foul play is increasingly brought to light by conscript rights activists, but "nobody knows how widespread abuse is, and our group can't keep up with the known cases," said Tolga Islam, head of the newly opened abuse watchdog Soldier Rights' Platform.
The group has documented 1,399 claims of maltreatment since it opened two years ago, and it says incidents range from episodes of minor hazing to cases like Ugur's, with around 40 percent of instances involving physical violence by superiors or senior troops.
While the death of Ugur in 2011 and private Murat Polat in 2005 are the only widely accepted cases of fatal beatings, Islam claims that beatings and other comparatively minor punishments "instill a feeling of arbitrary control," among conscripts and prevent troops from reporting mistreatment.
"Your superiors control the tiny world of your barracks," said one active-duty conscript who claims his sergeant beat him in May 2012. "It's best to forget and carry on."
The chilling effect is reinforced by the procedure for reporting abuse, said retired military judge Umit Kardas. "A soldier can only complain to the officer directly above the person who abused him, so he is likely appealing to someone who already knows about the mistreatment," he said. "The system is designed to protect career officers."
The army's culture of secrecy and impunity is reinforced by its own court system, which allows officers to remain above legal suspicion in criminal trials.
Conscripts who served with Ugur in northern Cyprus have testified in the torture trial that his commanding officer, first lieutenant Serdar Akdemir, routinely sent troops to the military prison where Ugur and others were tortured, and that base commander Bergay Turgut ignored complaints of mistreatment happening under his command.