The possible American origins of a brutal repression tool
Hours before Azerbaijani activists gathered in Baku last weekend for an unsanctioned protest against military violence, blogger Habib Muntezir sent out a word of warning: "Sonic weapons with a horrible acoustic effect may be used to disperse the protests. Use cotton or earplugs to protect your ears."
In the end, riot police did not resort to using the LRAD, or Long-Range Acoustic Device, which can blast a pain-inducing 150-decibel beam of sound to deter unruly crowds.
But the presence of the LRAD, a U.S.-manufactured device that is gaining international popularity as a crowd-control tool, still provoked a wave of outrage among the March 10 protesters, who say the West should not be helping to stock the Baku regime's arsenal.
"Hopefully, this is not a part of U.S. assistance to Azerbaijan," one activist wrote on Facebook in the wake of the protests, which ended with police using tear gas and water cannons -- both manufactured in Israel -- to forcibly break up the crowd.
Such clashes are expected to grow as antigovernment sentiment mounts ahead of October elections in which the country's autocratic leader, Ilham Aliyev, is expected to run for a controversial third term as president.
Aliyev has been widely criticized in the West for overseeing a deeply corrupt, oil-fed regime that has systematically muzzled and jailed critics to cement its hold on power. (Ali Hasanov, the head of the presidential administration, unapologetically stated this week that "illegal, unsanctioned protests will be dispersed in the future.")
'Looking The Other Way'
The U.S. State Department, in its annual human-rights report, has described Aliyev as "dominating" the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government, which are largely seen as serving the will of Azerbaijan's ruling clans.
Many, however, say such critiques ring hollow when the United States, in practical terms, has done little to stop the persistent repression of protesters, journalists, and human rights workers in Azerbaijan.
Pointing to the rough treatment of the March 10 protesters and the unexplained disappearance of one of its organizers, Ilkin Rustamadze, Amnesty International says it is "outrageous" that the United States and the European Union "continue to look the other way" on Azerbaijani rights abuses.
[Editor's note: The U.S. ambassador to Baku, Richard Morningstar, issued a statement March 12 calling on the Azerbaijani government to "respect the right of peaceful protest" and "engage in a meaningful dialogue with citizens to address legitimate public concerns."]
Natalia Nozadze, an Amnesty researcher, believes it's time for the international community to reconsider how it interacts with the Azerbaijani government.
"The policy of the European Union, the U.S., and other global players toward Azerbaijan is mainly shaped by two considerations," she says. "Economic interests that are based on the rich resources of Azerbaijan, and another, very important, factor -- which is often downplayed -- which is that Azerbaijan's current government, for better or for worse, is providing stability in the region."
Much of the concern centers on the supply of arms to Azerbaijan. The country has used its energy revenues to fuel a massive military buildup amid a bellicose standoff with neighboring Armenia over the disputed territory of Nagorno-Karabakh.
At the same time, it has steadily built up an arsenal of crowd-control devices that it is using regularly against demonstrators engaging in antigovernment protests, including truncheons, rubber bullets, tear gas, and water cannons.
Much of the equipment appears to have been purchased from Israel and the United States.
Photographs of tear-gas canisters used to disperse crowds during January's Ismayili protests bear code numbers linking them to ISPRA, a defense manufacturing firm based in the Israeli city of Herzelya.
Likewise, weapons experts contacted by RFE/RL said the Mercedes-mounted water cannon used in the March 10 protests matches the shape and design of cannons produced by the Beit Alfa Trailer Company, a known supplier to Azerbaijan.
The LRAD, which resembles a truck-mounted satellite dish, has been brought to Azerbaijani protest sites but has not yet been used. (The LRAD has been used by police in neighboring Georgia since 2007, and was also purchased by Warsaw police ahead of Poland's co-hosting of the Euro 2012 soccer championships.)
The acoustic device, which was developed by a California-based private manufacturer, has since been copied by China. But photographs of the LRAD at the March 10 protest suggest the device is of U.S. origin.
Zardust Alizadeh, a Baku-based political analyst, maintains that until the West says otherwise, the flow of arms will continue unabated into Azerbaijan -- the only country in Eastern Europe whose arms imports are on the rise.