Why Killing Kingpins Won't Stop Mexico's Drug Cartels

Even when El Chapo dies, Sinaloa will live on.

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Federal police present weaponry seized during an arrest operation against drug traffickers linked to Chapo Guzman, during a media presentation in Mexico City on February 4, 2012. (Edgard Garrido/Reuters)

The rumor started Thursday afternoon when the newspaper Prensa Libre reported that several narcos were killed during shootout in Guatemala's remote Petén region. Interior Minister Mauricio Lopez said one of the corpses was "physically very similar" to Joaquin "El Chapo" Guzmán, top boss of Mexico's Sinaloa cartel. Other outlets, including the unfiltered drug war diary Blog del Narco, spread the word on Twitter, piquing the interest of the international press, and sending Mexican and Guatemalan officials scrambling to confirm the powerful drug lord's purported demise.

The rumor was soon thoroughly debunked. There was no shootout, let alone one that claimed the life of the modern day Pablo Escobar. (Lopez, the Interior Minister, later apologized for the "misunderstanding" and blamed contradictory reports for the confusion.) Not only is El Chapo still very much alive, his legend has grown larger than ever. Already a billionaire according to Forbes, the Sinaloa capo has supplanted Osama bin Laden as the State Department's top international target, and the Chicago Crime Commission recently named him Public Enemy No. 1, a title originally reserved for Al Capone.

"It's been established that if you cut off the head off one of those groups, everyone who is left ends up fighting and duking it out."

History has repeatedly shown that high profile drug kingpins rarely survive long in the spotlight. Guzmán has already outlasted many of his peers and predecessors in the Mexican underworld, but with international law enforcement agencies and rival cartels both gunning for him, his days are inevitably numbered. After the latest round of death rumors, the question is worth asking: What happens if (or perhaps rather when) El Chapo meets his maker?

The outcomes depend on the circumstances, but few people are likely to benefit from Guzmán's death. Slaying El Chapo would be a public relations boon for Mexican president Enrique Peña Nieto, whose PRI party has long been associated with corruption and organized crime. Peña Nieto could claim success where his hardline predecessor Felipe Calderón failed in his bloody war against the cartels. But the long-term repercussions for Peña Nieto and the Mexican people may very well be negative.

Calderón was a staunch proponent of the "Kingpin Strategy," developed by the DEA in the early 1990s to cripple Colombia's infamous Cali and Medellín cartels. The thinking goes that decapitating (a figurative description for what has become a gruesomely literal narco tactic) the head of crime family creates disarray in the ranks below, which disrupts business operations and irreparably weakens the entire organization. Calderón's administration boasted of capturing or killing over 40 major drug traffickers , effectively dismantling the Tijuana cartel, and severely weakening the Gulf, Juarez, and La Familia Michoacana organizations.

While successful on some levels, killing kingpins is accompanied by grim side effects. Mexico's former Interior Minister Miguel Angel Osorio Chong told the Los Angeles Times the strategy causes criminal groups to fragment, making them "more violent and much more dangerous." The country's new Attorney General Jesus Murillo Karam said the kingpin strategy spawned 60 to 80 small and medium-sized factions that are now fighting among themselves for control of lucrative drug "plazas," and engaging in other criminal enterprises such as kidnapping, extortion and oil theft.

Capturing Osiel Cardenas Guillen, powerful head of the Gulf Cartel, merely paved the way for the paramilitary group Los Zetas to split from their bosses and commence their reign of terror in much of eastern Mexico. La Familia Michoacana has largely been replaced by the equally fearsome Caballeros Templarios. The death and arrests of the Beltrán-Leyva brothers, former allies of El Chapo, ignited a series of feuds that have wreaked havoc in much of Sinaloa and Guerrero .

"The capture or killing of Chapo will indeed weaken the Sinaloa cartel but not necessarily to the Mexican people's advantage," says Malcolm Beith, author of The Last Narco, a book that chronicles the manhunt for Guzmán. "What you'll get is more violence, we know that. It's not rocket science. It's been established that if you cut off the head off one of those groups, everyone who is left ends up fighting and duking it out."

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Keegan Hamilton is a freelance journalist based in New York.

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