Think Like a Dragon: The Global Lessons of China's Nuclear Program

Understanding Chinese nukes is about more than strategy -- it's about culture, history, and, yes, Sun Tzu.

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Visitors walk past a Chinese-made missile at the Military Museum in Beijing / Reuters

The United States, Russia, Britain, France and other nuclear powers all regard nuclear weapons as the core function of strategic deterrence."--Jiang Zemin (2002)

It's difficult to understand China's nuclear-weapons capability and strategy. Unlike the United States, China is not a signatory to most nuclear-weapons limitation and disarmament agreements. And it is certainly not forthcoming with information about its nuclear arsenal or development program. This leaves the world without any solid understanding of the capabilities of the Chinese missile command known as the Second Artillery Corps.

Thus, what we know about China's nuclear weapons is incomplete and often speculative. But even with better empirical knowledge, understanding Beijing's strategy--for nuclear weapons or other areas--requires a background in Chinese culture and history. Only then will U.S. policy makers be able to address the challenges of China's expanding nuclear capability.


The Second Artillery Corps of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) is in the process of developing a credible nuclear triad. This includes deployment of several ballistic missiles. Estimates of operationally deployed strategic weapons vary, but the most often repeated number is between one hundred and two hundred. It is also developing an arsenal of medium-range nuclear cruise missiles (between two hundred and five hundred in 2010).

In addition, the PLA Navy is growing its small number of submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs). The PLA Air Force is growing its fleet of H-6K nuclear-capable bombers (between five and ten in 2010) and developing the H-8 stealth bomber.

Although it is difficult to determine current investments in the Chinese nuclear-weapons program, there is reason to believe that the Second Artillery Corps has seen significant increases in its budget. And with the theft of U.S. nuclear-weapons-design information, China has a strong foundation from which to advance the technological capabilities of its weapons.

Chinese Strategy

In the modern Chinese military treatise The Science of Campaigns, the essence of Chinese nuclear strategy is described as lying "in the ingenious selection of targets, ingenious choice of timing opportunities, ingenious use of forces and firepower, and the ingenious application of operational methods." This prompts several questions: Who is targeted? What is the objective? When will it happen? Where will the Chinese deploy it? And why and how will they do it?

Who? China's strategic nuclear weapons are designed to target the United States. The United States is China's current and future strategic adversary--in spite of all the rhetoric of "competitive cooperation." Chinese tactical nuclear weapons, however, have a Russian or Indian address because of tensions on the borders of both nations.

What? China's principal strategic objective for its nuclear arsenal is holding the interests of the United States hostage and deterring American leaders from using superior conventional or nuclear forces to coerce China into taking actions that "humiliate" the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) or constrain its freedom of action. A strategy of deception reduces Chinese vulnerability to potential U.S. counterstrikes since it is difficult to target unknown-unknowns.

The Central Military Commission's principal fear has long been that the Second Artillery Corps does not have a credible nuclear force capable launching a retaliatory counterstrike.

In many ways, Chinese national and foreign-policy decision making is shaped by the country's "century of humiliation." The historical lessons learned during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when China fell under Western dominance, continue to shape leadership perceptions of how global powers wish to treat China. In its desire to overcome the past, CCP leaders and the PLA have been doggedly determined to never let the past repeat itself. China's nuclear-weapons program is a reflection of that underlying historical insecurity.

When? Evidence suggests that China is on a pace to build an arsenal that is equal in size and capability to the U.S. arsenal--if not superior--by 2050. Where the United States is rushing headlong toward nuclear abolition, the Chinese are on a very determined path to build an advanced arsenal equal to that of the other great powers.

Where? With a highly distributed nuclear infrastructure and deployed force, China has long focused on resiliency--always a primary concern. And with an estimated five thousand kilometers of tunnels strategically dispersed across the country, the Second Artillery Corps maintains a limited ability to strike the continental United States but a much greater ability to strike within the first and second island chains with nuclear and dual-capable weapons. These limitations will disappear in the decades ahead.

Why? In their drive to reunite greater China, which began with Tibet and most recently Hong Kong, CCP leaders are now focused on Taiwan. Concern that the United States will intervene to stop a PLA invasion of Taiwan is viewed as an intrusion into China's domestic affairs that could precipitate the use of nuclear weapons--on Chinese soil. This would not be seen as a violation of China's no-first-use policy since Taiwan is seen as a rebellious part of China.

How? China's dramatic economic growth is fueling a massive modernization effort that is spanning the breadth of the PLA Army, Navy, Air Force and Second Artillery Corps. As American companies seeing terabytes of sensitive research and development data smuggled away can attest, the Chinese are always seeking to advance their capabilities and know-how. To suggest that China is engaging in a revolution in military affairs akin to our own is not far from the truth. But unlike the United States, nuclear weapons are central to China's modernization effort.

Presented by

Panayotis A. Yannakogeorgos & Adam Lowther

Panayotis A. Yannakogeorgos is a cyber-defense analyst at the Air Force Research Institute. Adam Lowther is a research professor at the Air Force Research Institute. The views expressed are those of the authors.

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