How to Fix USAID

A broken aid agency helps no one. Instead of throwing development projects at the military, the US should put effort into fixing the aid agency's problems.powerplant_corr.jpgGlenn Zorpette, the executive editor of I.E.E.E. Spectrum, wrote a powerful op-ed in the New York Times yesterday about the challenges the United States Agency for International Development faces trying to provide electricity. He focuses on the challenge of building a 105-megawatt diesel power plant near Kabul. The plant is badly over budget, poorly run, and too expensive to operate given the high cost of diesel fuel (electricity imported from Uzbekistan is cheaper).

But, while Zorpette's critique of USAID's inability to run efficient contracts is perceptive, his solution is not:

What to do? Turn the projects over to the Army Corps of Engineers. It has performed better than U.S.A.I.D. on electrical projects in Afghanistan; it is less hobbled by politics; it has experienced engineers. It's critical that this happen soon, because the Corps can expect to be withdrawn with the rest of the Army, even if the timetable isn't set.

While this has the surface appeal of shifting resources to an agency that can "just get things done," and while Zorpette kind of briefly mentions the problems with militarizing aid, this still is a terrible idea. The phrase "hobbled by politics" leaps out, as if the DOD is not also hyper-aware of the politics of its operations (at least, within the U.S.) or as if there are no political issues within the governments of either the U.S. or Afghanistan to be considered when beginning a massive construction project. But in addition, on a very basic level, Zorpette is falling into the same trap that has the Defense Department running a $150 million program to develop small businesses: he is confusing expediency for effectiveness.

Zorpette believes it is the lack of electricity, and not, say, the behavior and strategy of the troops under the command of General Petraeus, that has stalled out the quest to "win hearts and minds" (which isn't even a U.S. goal anymore). You reach that conclusion if you have a very narrow focus on certain kinds of aid projects. You can also reach that conclusion if you labor under the mistaken impression that aid projects result in good counterinsurgency. They do not.

Another problem with Zorpette's model of throwing everything to the military because you need to get it done right now is that the military isn't all that good at this stuff, either. Much as he lauds the US Army Corps of Engineer's ability to build small generators for Afghans, Sen. Claire McCaskill (D-Mo.), chairman of the contracting oversight subcommittee of the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, recently questioned in a hearing why the military is even involved in such schemes.

McCaskill focused on the Pentagon's payments of $40 million for imported diesel fuel to power generators in Kandahar city, $86 million for power transmission between the cities of Chimtal and Gardez, and $20 million for provincial justice centers, all from the new fund. [Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for South and Central Asia David] Sedney said the commanders determined that battlefield success required "certain economic inputs," and quickly supplying electricity for Kandahar was one of them.

While it would be easy to lay into Mr. Sedney for his remarks, this speaks to the same flawed assumptions that animate Mr. Zorpette's op-ed about how bad USAID is. First of all is the belief unique to the DOD that economic outputs result in battlefield success. But the second is that to service a short time frame, the DOD must overtake civilian agencies to get a quick fix in place to show immediate results.

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Joshua Foust is a fellow at the American Security Project and the author of Afghanistan Journal: Selections from Registan.net. He is also a member of the Young Atlanticist Working Group. More

Joshua's research focuses on the role of market-oriented development strategies in post-conflict environments, and on the development of metrics in understanding national security policy. He has written on strategic design for humanitarian interventions, decision-making in counterinsurgency, and the intelligence community's place in the national security discussion. Previous to joining ASP, Joshua worked for the U.S. intelligence community, where he focused on studying the non-militant socio-cultural environment in Afghanistan at the U.S. Army Human Terrain System, then the socio-cultural dynamics of irregular warfare movements at the National Ground Intelligence Center, and later on political violence in Yemen for the Defense Intelligence Agency.

Joshua is a columnist for PBS Need to Know, and blogs about Central and South Asia at the influential blog Registan.net. A frequent commentator for American and global media, Joshua appears regularly on BBC World, Aljazeera, and international public radio. Joshua is also a regular contributor to Foreign Policy's AfPak Channel, and his writing has appeared in the New York Times, Reuters, and the Christian Science Monitor.

 

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