Although the uprisings spreading across the Middle East are local phenomena in crucial respects, they share a set of ideas about nonviolent resistance
A widely read New York Times story last week connected the nonviolent resistance in Egypt with the academic work of an American scholar, Gene Sharp. He is the author of the seminal 1973 three-volume study, The Politics of Nonviolent Action, as well as decades of further publications translated into thirty languages.
What are Sharp's ideas, and how do they help us understand events in Egypt and elsewhere?
Professor Stephen Zunes, a political scientist and another leading figure in the field, noted in the New York Times piece, "[Sharp] is generally considered the father of the whole field of the study of strategic nonviolent action." Zunes is not exaggerating. Besides Gandhi, no one in the last century has more systematically laid out the theory of nonviolent power than Sharp.
The Times article used words like "shy" and "quiet" to describe Sharp. I have had the opportunity to speak with him on a couple of occasions, and while these adjectives are not inaccurate, he is hardly shrinking. In fact, he speaks with a certitude that reflects many decades of careful and unblinking study.
Of course, Sharp did not somehow orchestrate events in the Middle East from his base at the Albert Einstein Institution. The uprisings that have been spreading across the Middle East are local phenomena in crucial respects. Egyptians have been organizing for years. Landmarks in recent Egyptian reformist history include the emergence of the Kefaya movement in 2003, the national strike of April 6, 2008, and the online Khaled Said campaign in 2010. Besides, who could watch the courage and passion of millions of Egyptians and claim this was not their revolution, an expression of their issues, on their turf, in their language, dance, custom, song, and humor?
And the stories of resistance in Tunisia, Algeria, Yemen, Jordan, Bahrain, Iran, and Libya are also fundamentally local ones.
At the same time, these events are connected in important ways and underpinned by a shared set of ideas about nonviolent resistance, developed by Sharp and many others, including a new generation of scholars and advocates, such as Dr. Peter Ackerman of the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict.
Nonviolent resistance has been changing the world for at least a century since Gandhi began challenging British racism in South Africa. (Or is it centuries? George Lakey, a Peace and Conflict Studies colleague and expert on nonviolent action at Swarthmore College, told me last week that one of his students has been tracing nonviolent resistance back to at least 5 BCE, in the form of labor strikes in Egypt.)
Nonviolent resistance movements are increasingly exchanging ideas in transnational networks. A 1956 comic book published by the Fellowship of Reconciliation, Martin Luther King and the Montgomery Story, was recently translated into Arabic. Egyptian activists traveled to Serbia to consult with veterans of the "Otpor" movement that overthrew Slobodan Milosevic in 2000. The Serbs shared their own hard-won experience, as well as fundamental lessons of popular nonviolent resistance.
What are these lessons?
First, successful nonviolent resistance is based on overcoming fear and obedience. Despotic regimes, rather than ruling through absolute violence, typically rely on a noxious mixture of propaganda, patronage, apathy, political legitimacy, and a calibrated use of public and covert violence to generate a blanket of fear.